Victory Corps: World War II Home front

Maryland State Archives
350 Rowe Boulevard,
Annapolis, MD 21401

Introduction

World War II Home frontAs Americans became more involved in the escalation of World War II, volunteer organizations began to form. Seeing the need for high school students to become involved, Commissioner of Education John W. Studebaker, on September 25, 1942, upon the recommendation of his advisory Wartime Commission, established the Victory Corps.

The purpose of this student organization was to prepare high school students to aid in the war effort on the homefront and the frontlines.  Both girls and boys from white and African American schools participated.  In order to be a member, a student needed to participate in a physical fitness program, enroll in a war-effort class, and volunteer for at least one extracurricular wartime activity.  Engaging in a physical fitness program was essential because military officials were alarmed by the poor condition of recent enlistments.  At the advent of the war, high school curriculums in Maryland had been altered to accommodate war-effort classes.  By modifiying industrial arts and vocational-industrial classes, students could learn about machinery, fundamentals of electricity, radios, canning of food, aeronautics, first aid, and other pertinent topics.

Due to its proximity to Washington, D.C., Maryland had the first three Victory Corps programs: Ellicott City High School in Howard County and Sherwood High School and Montgomery Blair Senior High School, both in Montgomery County.  As the war progressed, 126 of the 145 Maryland county high schools and all of Baltimore City’s high schools had established Victory Corps.

As the war drew to a close, the Victory Corps program was phased out beginning in June of 1944.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 8:  The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)

STANDARD 3:  The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs. 

Standard 3C:  The student understands the effects of World War II at home.

5-12 Explain how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources during World War II. [Utilize visual and quantitative data]
7-12 Evaluate how minorities organized to gain access to wartime jobs and how they confronted discrimination. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue]
7-12 Analyze the effects of World War II on gender roles and the American family. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]
9-12  Evaluate the war’s impact on science, medicine, and technology, especially in nuclear physics, weaponry, synthetic fibers, and television. [Utilize quantitative data]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Montgomery Blair High school Victory Corps. Montgomery Blair High School girls are being trained for positions in war industry. As part of the Victory Corps activities in this Silver Spring, Maryland school, Shirley Noonan learns how to weld. John Studebaker, U.S. Commissioner of Education, watches her work. He, along with several Army, Navy, and civilian officials, reviewed Victory Corps maneuvers at the high school.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  2. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, High school Victory Corps. Home economics students at Montgomery Blair High School in Silver Spring, Maryland, make their contribution to the school’s Victory Corps program by preparing and serving food in the student-operated cafeteria
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  3. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, High school Victory Corps. Domestic governing body at the Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, Maryland, is the student council which cooperates with school officials and the parent-teachers association in determining policies for their Victory Corps.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  4. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Montgomery Blair High school Victory Corps. Members of the Victory Corps exhibited their best formations before Army, Navy, and civilian officials in Silver Spring, Maryland. The girls being reviewed are students of Montgomery Blair High School.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  5. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, High school Victory Corps. To release housewives in Silver Spring, Maryland, for war work, girls in the Victory Corps of Montgomery Blair High School operate a day nursery. Besides helping the community, the project ties in with the school’s home economics course.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  6. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Montgomery Blair High school Victory Corps. Victory Corps girls of Montgomery Blair high school in Silver Spring, Maryland stood erect when “superior officers” reviewed their maneuvers. Students wear their uniforms three times a week and have their extra- curricular activities directed towards war work.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  7. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, High school Victory Corps. James Parsley and Bill Sabin do their clean-up chores for the day in Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, Maryland. Because of labor shortage, Victory Corps members at Montgomery Blair are taking over some of the janitor, mechanical and electrical repair activities at the school.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  8. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, High school Victory Corps. Young Americans study the problems of Democracy at war to prepare them for their future usefulness to their country. This panel discussion on inflation is typical of those held in social studies classes at Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, Maryland, in which members of the Victory Corps learn what they are organized to fight.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  9. DESCRIPTION: Photograph, Montgomery Blair High School, Silver Spring, Maryland. Victory Corps boy learning bench metal mathematics.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  10. DESCRIPTION:
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1942 Oct.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  11. DESCRIPTION: Photograph,  Buying war stamps at the booth maintained by the Victory Corp at Woodrow Wilson High School
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  October 1943
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  12. DESCRIPTION: Records of the High School Victory Corps Records of the Office of Education
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1942-1944
    SOURCE:  Records of the Office of Education (Record Group 12) 1870-1983
    RESPOSITORY:  U.S. National Archives & Records Administration
  13. DESCRIPTION: Photograph,  High school Victory Corps. Members of the Victory Corps of Roosevelt High School, Los Angeles, California, have an opportunity to learn first aid. Here, one of the groups practice on a classmate.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  September-October 1942
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to order reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and other restrictions
    SOURCE: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC
  14. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper article, “Victory Corps: School Units Planned”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: September 25, 1942
    SOURCE: Evening Sun (Baltimore)
    NOTE: Also located in flat file in Maryland Room, Enoch Pratt Library
  15. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper article, “Pace setters in War Effort”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: September 27, 1942
    SOURCE: Sun (Baltimore)
    NOTE: Includes photographs of Ellicott City High School; Also located in flat file in Maryland Room, Enoch Pratt Library
  16. DESCRIPTION: “High School Victory Corps”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: March-June 1943
    SOURCE: Baltimore Bulletin of Education, Vol XX, No. 3
    NOTE: Also located in flat file in Maryland Room, Enoch Pratt Library
  17. DESCRIPTION: Victory Corps. Along with their English course, this class at Benjamin Franklin High School in New York City is learning the basic principles of first aid
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: October 1942
    SOURCE:  Archival Research Catalog of U.S. National Archives & Records Administration
    RESPOSITORY:  Franklin D. Roosevelt Library (Hyde Park, NY)
    NOTE: Search by title listed above
  18. DESCRIPTION:  “Cardozo High School, Washington, DC.” High School Victory Corps
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  June 1943
    SOURCE:  Archival Research Catalog of U.S. National Archives & Records Administration
    RESPOSITORY: National Archives at College Park – Archives II
    NOTE: Search by title listed above

Additional Instructional Resources

Resources on Incorporating Primary Sources and Historic Sites in Classroom Instruction

On the Homefront: America During World War I and World War II. From the Learning Page, American Memory.

Secondary Resources

Andrus, Ethel Percy. High School Victory Corps Journal of Educational Sociology (December 1942): 231-240.

Ugland, Richard M. “Education for Victory: The High School Victory Corps and Curriculum Adaptation during World War II.” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 4. (Winter, 1979), pp. 435-451.

Uhler, Jr., William P., “The Impact of the War Upon the School Health Program.” Journal of Educational Sociology, Vol. 16, No. 7. (Mar., 1943), pp. 411-416.
NOTE: describes the changes outlined for a National Physical Fitness program

Password Access to Journal Articles

Some journal articles linked to this site require password access due to copyright and other restrictions. Teachers participating in the Teaching American History in Maryland program with a valid University of Maryland (UMBC) Library card can access these materials through ResearchPort.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Traci Siegler.

From Segregation to Integration

The Donald Murray Case, 1935-1937

Maryland State Archives
350 Rowe Boulevard
Annapolis, MD 21401

Introduction

Donald Gaines Murray was the subject of the court case University v. Murray, 169 Md. 478 (1936).  In 1936, Murray petitioned for a writ of mandamus ordering that he be admitted to the segregated University of Maryland School of Law.  Thurgood Marshall, Murray’s lawyer, argued that Murray was denied “separate but equal” treatment because he was denied access to an accredited local law school.  Court of Appeals Judge Carroll T. Bond ruled that, in order to accommodate Plessy v. Ferguson, Murray could attend the institution but he had to remain separated from white students.  Marshall, who sought to undermine segregation on the level on higher education, later helped ban racial segregation in public schools by arguing in Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954) that “separate but equal” was an impossible principle to realize.

SOURCE: Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series) Donald Gaines Murray, MSA SC 3520-12494

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 8: The Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945)

STANDARD 3:  The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs. 

Standard 3C: The student understands the effects of World War II at home. 

7-12: Evaluate how minorities organized to gain access to wartime jobs and how they confronted discrimination. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: Article by Africanorum
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  May 15, 1783
    SOURCE: Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2311-18
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-1.
  2. DESCRIPTION: de facto and de jure segregation: Augusta and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:
     1896
    SOURCE: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-18.
  3. DESCRIPTION: Photograph of Donald Gaines Murray from his 1934 Amherst yearbook, Olio
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1934
    SOURCE: Archives and Special Collections, Amherst College Library
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-2.
  4. DESCRIPTION: Profile of Donald Gaines Murray from his 1934 Amherst yearbook, Olio
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1934
    SOURCE: Archives and Special Collections, Amherst College Library
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-2.
  5. DESCRIPTION: Plaintiff’s exhibit number 1 (Donald G. Murray to Dean of the Law School) 
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  December 8, 1934
    SOURCE: BALTIMORE CITY COURT (Court Papers) MSA C 174-2-6. 
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-2.
  6. DESCRIPTION: Baltimore City Atlas, 1906, showing McCulloh Street and environs. MSA SC 2179-1-1, MSA SC 2221-11-3.
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:
    SOURCE:
    REPOSITORY: 
  7. DESCRIPTION: Plaintiff’s exhibit number 2 (R.A. Pearson to Donald G. Murray) 14 December 1934; petitioner’s exhibit A (admission application) n.d.; plaintiff’s exhibit number 4 (W. M. Hillegeist to Donald G. Murray) 9 February 1935; plaintiff’s exhibit number 5 (Donald G. Murray to the Board of Regents) 5 March 1935; plaintiff’s exhibit number 6 (R. A. Pearson to Donald G. Murray) 8 March 1935; petitioner’s exhibit A (postal money order) . MSA C 174-2, .
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1934-1945
    SOURCE: BALTIMORE CITY COURT (Court Papers) MSA C 174-2.
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-4
  8. DESCRIPTION:  Docket entry of Petition of Donald G. Murray for a Writ of Mandamus directed to the President, the Registrar, and the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland requiring them to accept the application of the petitioner for admission as a first year student in the Day School of the School of Law of the University of Maryland.
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  April 18, 1935
    SOURCE: BALTIMORE CITY COURT (Petition Docket) GCL #13, 1930-1936, p. 284 [MSA T 549-10]
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-5
  9. DESCRIPTION: Stenographer’s Record, Donald G. Murray vs. Raymond A. Pearson, et al. 18 June 1935; plaintiff’s exhibit number 10; writ of mandamus 25 June 1935.
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1935
    SOURCE: BALTIMORE CITY COURT (Court Papers) [MSA C 174-2]
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-6
  10. DESCRIPTION: Baltimore Afro-American.
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  Week of June 22, 1935
    SOURCE: Courtesy of the McKeldin Library, University of Maryland
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-7
  11. DESCRIPTION: Number 53 October Term 1935: petition to advance case for an immediate hearing 6 August 1935
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1935
    SOURCE: COURT OF APPEALS (Miscellaneous Papers) [MSA S 397-94]
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-8
  12. DESCRIPTION: Number 53 October Term 1935: answer to petition to advance 31 August 1935
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1935
    SOURCE: COURT OF APPEALS (Miscellaneous Papers) [MSA S 397-94]
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-8
  13. DESCRIPTION: Number 53 October Term 1935: opinion, filed 15 January 1936
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1936
    SOURCE: COURT OF APPEALS (Opinions) [MSA S 393-229]
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-8
  14. DESCRIPTION: Folder labled “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 27th Annual Conference, Baltimore, June 30 to July 5th, 1936,” containing correspondence between Governor Harry W. Nice and Thurgood Marshall, and between Governor Nice and Mrs. Lillie M. Jackson in March 1937, with enclosures.
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1936-1937
    SOURCE: GOVERNOR (Subject File) #613-L-M [MSA S 1046-97]
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-9
  15. DESCRIPTION: Commencement announcement, University of Maryland
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: June 4, 1938
    SOURCE: SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Thurgood Marshall Memorial Collection) MSA SC 4565
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-17
  16. DESCRIPTION: Esther McCready, Charles Houston, Donald Gaines Murray, and the desegregation of the University of Maryland School of Nursing
    SOURCE: Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-16
  17. DESCRIPTION: Photograph of Thurgood Marshall
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  ca. 1989
    SOURCE: SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Thurgood Marshall Research Collection) National Geographic Society photograph. MSA SC 2219-1
    REPOSITORY: 
    Maryland State Archives, Documents for the Classroom Series, MSA SC 2221-11-10

Additional Media Resources

Thurgood Marshall: Reference Materials prepared for the Consideration of the Commission on the Thurgood Marshall Memorial Statue in Annapolis

The Thurgood Marshall Memorial, State House Square, State Circle, Annapolis, Maryland

“Frustrations that Overcame Marshall” by Denton L. Watson, Baltimore Sun, 1 July 1991, MSA SC 2221-11-15.

“The Most Important Lawyer of the 20th Century” by Garland L. Thompson, Baltimore Sun, 30 June 1991, MSA SC 2221-11-14.

Baltimore Sun, obituary of Floyd McKissick, 30 April 1991, MSA SC 2221-11-13.

“Victory in Baltimore” Clarence Mitchell Jr. and the Struggle for Civil Rights by Denton L. Watson, Baltimore Sun, 20 June 1990; and letter to the editor re Denton Watson’s article, Baltimore Sun, 6 July 1990, MSA SC 2221-11-12.

Baltimore Sun, obituary of Donald Gaines Murray, 10 April 1986, MSA SC 2221-11-11.

Selected Chronology

The United States Constitution and Individual Civil Rights

1776– Declaration of Independence
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, …

1783, May 15Vox Africanorum in the Maryland Gazette (Annapolis)
We have lately beheld, with anxious concern, your infant struggles in the glorious cause of liberty — We attended to your solemn declaration of rights of mankind — to your appeals, for the rectitude of your principles, to the Almighty, who regards men of every condition, and admits them to a participation of his benefits — We admired your wisdom, justice, piety, and fortitude.

Though our bodies differ in colour from yours; yet our souls are similar in a desire for freedom. Disparity in colour, we conceive, can never constitute a disparity in rights. Reason is shocked at the absurdity! Humanity revolts at the idea!

1788, May 16Othello in the Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser:
SLAVERY, unquestionably, should be abolished, particularly in this country; because it is inconsistent with the declared principles of the American Revolution. … This is the least we can do, in order to evince our sense of the irreparable outrages we have committed, to wipe off the odium we have incurred, and to give mankind a confidence again, in the justice, liberality, and honour, of our national proceedings.

1791, December 15– the first ten Amendments (Bill of Rights) to the U.S. Constitution are declared officially ratified.

1802– Universal white manhood suffrage adopted by Maryland. Free Blacks excluded from voting.

1833Barron v. Baltimore. Opinion written by Chief Justice John Marshall: amendments to the Constitution do not protect individuals from actions taken by the respective states or local jurisdictions.

1857Dred Scott v. Sandford (not fully overturned until 1954-1955). Opinion written by Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney of Maryland: the negro had no rights which the white man was bound to respect.

1864– Slavery abolished in Maryland with the adoption of a new State Constitution.

1865– 13th Amendment abolishes slavery.

1868– 14th Amendment calls for due process for all.

1870– 15th Amendment extends voting rights to black men, naturalized males of age.
The initial review of the 13th through the 15th Amendments by the Supreme Court left interpretation and enforcement largely to the states.

1883U. S. v. Singleton (Civil Rights Cases). left enforcement of civil rights to the states, but a vigorous dissent was written by Justice John Marshall Harlan, using (according to tradition) Roger Brooke Taney’s inkwell.

1896Plessy v. Ferguson (overruled in Gale v. Browder, 1956). Established separate but equal doctrine in civil rights; dissent by Justice John Marshall Harlan.

1908Berea College v. Kentucky. States could order segregation in private colleges; dissent by Justice John Marshall Harlan.

1915– Voting rights cases decided by the Supreme Court including Meyers v Anderson in which the voting rights of a black Civil War veteran from Annapolis, Maryland were reinstated. In 1908, the Maryland Legislature passed a new City Code for Annapolis that denied blacks the right to vote if they had less than $500 worth of property or if a parent, grandparent, or direct ancestor was not permitted to vote before 1868 (known as a grandfather clause). The Supreme Court found this and other similar laws contrary to the provisions of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, but left the door open for other kinds of restrictions such as those based upon literacy tests and the nonpayment of poll taxes.

1920– 19th Amendment grants women the right to vote.

1935-1936– [Maryland Courts] Murray v. Pearson. Court orders integration of the University of Maryland Law School.

1936-1937– NAACP fails in its attempt (with Thurgood Marshall as counsel) to integrate Catonsville High School in Baltimore County, Maryland. NAACP successful in obtaining equal pay for black teachers in segregated schools in Calvert County, Maryland. State of Maryland greatly increases funding to black colleges in Maryland and to scholarships for blacks. NAACP successful in preventing an amendment to the Black Scholarship Fund that would have required recipients to attend out-of-state colleges.

1954-1955Brown v. Board of Education (2 cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court). Court ordered integration of secondary public schools and, on matters of individual rights, the Court adopted as its majority opinion that the Bill of Rights does apply to individuals in disputes between individuals and their state and/or local government, and that enforcement of those rights can be a federal matter.

1964– 24th Amendment abolishes poll taxes as a means of preventing participation in federal elections.

1971– 26th Amendment gives 18 year-olds the right to vote.

Additional Instructional Resources

Resources on Incorporating Primary Sources and Historic Sites in Classroom Instruction

The Learning Page: Lessons by Themes, Topics, Disciplines or Eras

Secondary Resources

    • Bland, Randal W.

Private Pressure on Public Law: The Legal Career of Justice Thurgood Marshall.

    • New York: Associated Faculty Press, 1973.

Elwood, William A., Producer/Director. The Road to Brown. San Francisco: California Newsreel, 1990. 47 minutes.

Kuebler, Edward J. “Desegregation of the University of Maryland,” Maryland Historical Magazine, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 37-49.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America’s Struggle for Equality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.

Marshall, Thurgood. “Court Action as a Means of Achieving Racial Integration in Education:  An Evaluation of Recent Efforts to Achieve Racial Integration in Education Through Resort to the Courts.” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 21, No. 3, The Courts and Racial Integration in Education. (Summer, 1952), pp. 316-327.

Riggs, Marlon, Producer/Director. Ethnic Notions. San Francisco: Resolution Inc./California Newsreel, 1987. 56 minutes.

Rowan, Carl Thomas. Dream Makers, Dream Breakers: The World of Justice Thurgood Marshall. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1993.

Shnayerson, Robert. The Illustrated History of the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986.

Watson, Denton L. Lion in the Lobby. Clarence Mitchell, Jr.’s Struggle for the Passage of Civil Rights Laws. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1990.

    • Weaver, Bill and Oscar C. Page. “

The Black Press and the Drive for Integrated Graduate and Professional Schools

Phylon (1960-)

    , Vol. 43, No. 1. (1st Qtr., 1982), pp. 15-28. [Password required]

Associated Heritage Sites and Preservation Organizations

  • The Thurgood Marshall Memorial on Lawyers’ Mall in AnnapolisIn 1996, the State of Maryland erected a monument to Thurgood Marshall in Annapolis near the site of the old Court of Appeals building where he argued the Murray case in 1935. Notice how the statue depicts a younger Marshall than often seen in photographs or other monuments which show Marshall later in his career, as a Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Murray’s client Esther McCready, for whom Murray and co-counsel Charles H. Houston won admission to the University of Maryland School of Nursing in 1950, attended the dedication ceremony. The Archives presented historical materials on the career of Marshall in preparation for the opening of the memorial.
  • Clarence Mitchell Courthouse
    111 N. Calvert St.
    Baltimore, MDThurgood Marshall argued the Murray case in this historic building, since renamed for one of Maryland’s most prominent African-American lawyers. Mitchell was renown for his civil rights legal efforts.
  • 1522 McCullough St.
    Baltimore, MDThe Murray family townhouse still stands, but is not known or marked as the home of a pivotal character in the history of desegregation in Maryland.
  • University of Maryland
    Corner of Lombard and Greene Streets
    Baltimore, MDThe building which now houses the School of Nursing served as the law school in the 1930s.

Credits

The Archives of Maryland Documents for the Classroom series of the Maryland State Archives was designed and developed by Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse and Dr. M. Mercer Neale and was prepared with the assistance of R. J. Rockefeller, Lynne MacAdam, Leigh Bond, Matt Brown, Laura Lisy, and other members of the Archives staff. MSA SC 2221-11. Publication no. 1844.

The Cambridge Riots of 1963 and 1967

Introduction

H. Rap Brown and the Cambridge RiotsIn the early 1960s, the pattern of peaceful sit-ins to protest unequal public accommodations and racial discrimination began to shift toward angrier and more violent protests. Cambridge resident Gloria Richardson, a recent Howard graduate, quickly became a local leader advocating more militant boycotts and sit-ins. While peaceful protests were generally tolerated as long as they did not impede access to buildings and accommodations, the transformation towards more aggressive protesting resulted in police action and arrests. In June 1963, Cambridge Mayor Calvin Mawbray asked Richardson to stop the demonstrations in exchange for end to the arrests of protestors, but Richardson angrily refused. On June 11, 1963, the town erupted into violent rioting after black youths began throw rocks at white-owned businesses. After shooting broke out between the opposing elements, Governor Tawes declared martial law and troops arrived in Cambridge to restore order.

When talks between Richardson and state officials broke down, U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy negotiated a deal that would provide immediate equal access for blacks in public accommodations in Cambridge in return to a one-year moratorium on demonstrations. Although Kennedy thought Richardson had accepted the deal, Richardson publicly announced the civil rights gains achieved while denying that she had made any promises to end the demonstrations.  In response, Governor Tawes dispatched additional troops to Cambridge. An open accommodation amendment to the city charter failed to pass, but the passage of state and federal laws brought the issue to a close.

Throughout the country, militant rioting and demonstrations continued. On July 24, 1967, the National State Rights Party held a rally in Cambridge during which H. Rap Brown delivered a now famous speech advocating increased violence and unrest:

Ain’t no need in the world for me to come to Cambridge and I see all them stores sitting up there and all them honkies owns them. You got to own some of them stores. I don’t care if you have to burn him down and run him out. You’d better take over them stores. The streets are your. Take ’em. They gave you the streets a long time ago; before they gave you houses. Then gave you the streets. So, we own the streets. Take ’em…. 

Immediately after Brown left town, fires broke out in the black wards of Cambridge. White firemen refused to enter the area without police protection. Black leaders appealed for help, but in the end, two blocks of the black district burned to the ground. The militant movement in Cambridge was crushed and Richardson left town. In September, H. Rap Brown was indicted for arson and inciting a riot. Brown jumped bail and continued the movement underground, but was captured in 1971 after a shoot-out with police in New York.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 9: Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)

STANDARD 4: The struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties. 

Standard 4A: The student understands the “Second Reconstruction” and its advancement of civil rights.

9-12: Assess the reasons for and effectiveness of the escalation from civil disobedience to more radical protest in the civil rights movement. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

Primary Resources

  1. SPECIAL COLLECTIONS (Maryland State Archives Map Collection) Map of Cambridge, ca. 1960. Highways of Dorchester County, Maryland Department of Transportation. MSA SC 1427-215, MSA SC 2221-12-16.

  2. A collation of transcripts of a speech given by H. Rap Brown on 24 July 1967 in Cambridge Maryland, by Lawrence Peskin and Dawn Almes, and a recording of part of the speech provided by Wayne E. Page, MSA SC 2221-12-8.

  3. DORCHESTER COUNTY CIRCUIT COURT (Criminal Papers) #2116 Maryland vs. H. Rap Brown, September 1967, MSA T 2091. The Annotated Code of the Public General Laws of Maryland Horace E. Flack, ed., Vol 1, Sec. 7, Art. 27 (Baltimore: King Bros. Inc., 1952). ATTORNEY GENERAL (Criminal Investigation Papers) #1028, 1968, transcript of reports concerning H. Rap Brown’s speech, MSA T 2094, MSA SC 2221-12-12.

  4. Early newspaper accounts relating to the arrest of H. Rap Brown, MSA SC 2520, MSA SC 2221-12-35.

  5. Excerpts from Die Nigger Die! by H. Rap Brown (New York: Dial Press, 1969), MSA SC 2221-12-13.

  6. Excerpts from the Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew (Annapolis: State of Maryland, 1975), MSA SC 2221-12-6.

  7. GOVERNOR (General File) Letters to and from Delegate Aris Allen in 1968 concerning Governor Agnew’s remarks to the African American leadership in Baltimore, 11 April 1968. MSA S 1041-1713, MSA SC 2221-12-15.

Secondary Resources

Brugger, Robert. “Land of Pleasant Living” In Maryland: A Middle Temperament. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press in association with the Maryland Historical Society, 1988.

Callcott, George. “The Black Revolution” In Maryland & America 1940-1980. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press , 1985.

Foeman, Anita K. “Gloria Richardson: Breaking the Mold” Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 26, No. 5, Special Issue: The Voices of African American Women in the Civil Rights Movement. (May, 1996), pp. 604-615.

Levy, Peter B. Civil War on Race Street: The Civil Rights Movement in Cambridge, Maryland. University Press of Florida, 2003.

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

The Archives of Maryland Documents for the Classroom series of the Maryland State Archives was designed and developed by Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse and Dr. M. Mercer Neale and was prepared with the assistance of R. J. Rockefeller, Lynne MacAdam and other members of the Archives staff. MSA SC 2221-12. Publication no. 2395.

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

Introduction

Three stories of a ten-floor building at the corner of Greene Street and Washington Place were burned yesterday, and while the fire was going on 141 young men and women at least 125 of them mere girls were burned to death or killed by jumping to the pavement below.

The building was fireproof. It shows now hardly any signs of the disaster that overtook it. The walls are as good as ever so are the floors, nothing is the worse for the fire except the furniture and 141 of the 600 men and girls that were employed in its upper three stories.

Most of the victims were suffocated or burned to death within the building, but some who fought their way to the windows and leaped met death as surely, but perhaps more quickly, on the pavements below.

Nothing like it has been seen in New York since the burning of the General Slocum. The fire was practically all over in half an hour. It was confined to three floors the eighth, ninth, and tenth of the building. But it was the most murderous fire that New York had seen in many years.

The victims who are now lying at the Morgue waiting for some one to identify them by a tooth or the remains of a burned shoe were mostly girls from 16 to 23 years of age. They were employed at making shirtwaist by the Triangle Waist Company, the principal owners of which are Isaac Harris and Max Blanck. Most of them could barely speak English. Many of them came from Brooklyn. Almost all were the main support of their hard-working families.

There is just one fire escape in the building. That one is an interior fire escape. In Greene Street, where the terrified unfortunates crowded before they began to make their mad leaps to death, the whole big front of the building is guiltless of one. Nor is there a fire escape in the back.

The building was fireproof and the owners had put their trust in that. In fact, after the flames had done their worst last night, the building hardly showed a sign. Only the stock within it and the girl employees were burned.

A heap of corpses lay on the sidewalk for more than an hour. The firemen were too busy dealing with the fire to pay any attention to people whom they supposed beyond their aid. When the excitement had subsided to such an extent that some of the firemen and policemen could pay attention to this mass of the supposedly dead they found about half way down in the pack a girl who was still breathing. She died two minutes after she was found.

The Triangle Waist Company was the only sufferer by the disaster. There are other concerns in the building, but it was Saturday and the other companies had let their people go home. Messrs. Harris and Blanck, however, were busy and ?? their girls and some stayed.

Extracted from: The New York Times, March 26, 1911

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930) 

STANDARD 1: How Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption.
Standard 1A: The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels.

9-12: Assess Progressive efforts to regulate big business, curb labor militancy, and protect the rights of workers and consumers. [Evaluate alternative courses of action]
5-12: Evaluate Progressive attempts at social and moral reform. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

STANDARD 3: How the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression.

Standard 3A: The student understands social tensions and their consequences in the postwar era. 

9-12: Analyze how the emergence of the ‘New Woman’ challenged Victorian values. [Examine the influence of ideas]

Standard 3B: The student understands how a modern capitalist economy emerged in the 1920s.

5-12: Explain how principles of scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, continued to transform production, work, and daily life. [Examine the influence of ideas]

Primary Resources

  1. SEE: Photographs from the Triangle Factory fire are available from Cornell University and New Deal Network
  2. SEE: Testimonials, newspaper accounts, letters, and reports relating to the Triangle Factory Fire and aftermath are available from The Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University.
  3. TITLE: Working for the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, Pauline Newman and Joan Morrison.
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — In this oral history interview conducted by historian Joan Morrison, Pauline Newman told of getting a job at the Triangle Company as a child, soon after arriving in the United States from Lithuania in 1901. Newman described her life as an immigrant and factory worker. Like many other young immigrant workers, she chafed at the strict regulations imposed by the garment manufacturers. One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 26, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. Although she was not working in the factory at the time of the fire, many of her friends perished. Newman later became an organizer and leader of the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT, AUDIO.
    SOURCE: History Matters
  4. TITLE: No Way Out: Two New York City Firemen Testify about the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 26, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. In this brief excerpt from their testimony before the Factory Investigation Commission, New York City Fire Chief Edward F. Croker and Fire Marshall William Beers commented on the safety lapses—the locking of an exit door, the inadequate fire escapes, and the overcrowded factory floor—that led to the deaths of the Triangle workers.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  5. TITLE: Lament for Lives Lost: Rose Schneiderman and the Triangle Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 25, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. The victims had been trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. The aftermath of the catastrophe brought grief and recriminations. Protest rallies and memorial meetings were held throughout the city. During one meeting at the Metropolitan Opera House, tension broke out between the working-class Lower East Siders who filled the galleries (and saw class solidarity as the ultimate solution to the problems of industrial safety) and the middle- and upper-class women in the boxes who sought reforms like creation of a bureau of fire prevention. The meeting would have broken up in disorder if not for a stirring speech by Rose Schneiderman, a Polish-born former hat worker who had once led a strike at the Triangle factory. Although she barely spoke above a whisper, Schneiderman held the audience spellbound.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  6. TITLE: The Jewish Daily Forward Reports the Triangle Tragedy
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 25, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. The victims had been trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. One of the worst industrial fires in U.S. history, the Triangle fire became a galvanizing symbol of industrial capitalism’s excesses and the pressing need for reform. In its aftermath, a coalition of middle-class reformers and working people secured passage of landmark occupational health and safety laws. The Triangle fire received sensational coverage in all the New York newspapers. This article from the Jewish Daily Forward, printed the day after the fire, emphasized the tragic loss to the Jewish community.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  7. TITLE: Minute by Minute: The World’s Account of the Triangle Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — On the warm spring afternoon of March 25, 1911, a small fire broke out in a bin of rags at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory on New York City’s Lower East Side. In less than an hour, 146 people—most of them young immigrant women—died, trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. One of the worst industrial fires in U.S. history, the Triangle fire galvanized working people and middle-class reformers alike, ultimately resulting in the passage of several laws designed to insure workplace safety. The fire received sensational and extensive coverage in all the New York City newspapers. William Gunn Shepherd, a young reporter for the New York World, happened to be at the scene of the fire when it began. From a phone across the street, he gave a minute-by-minute account of the unfolding events to his city editor. The World published them the following day.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters

Additional Media Resources

Triangle Factory Fire — online exhibit from Cornell University. Includes documents, photographs, and tips for student projects

The Triangle Fire, March 25, 1911 — From New Deal Network. Includes photographs, taken at the scene of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, from the archives of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire — From The Encyclopedia of New York City

Remembering Rose Freedman, last survivor of the Triangle Factory fire. Broadcast February 25, 2001

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire — From NPR

The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Trial: A Chronology

How Was the Relationship Between Workers and Allies Shaped by the Perceived Threat of Socialism in the
New York City Shirtwaist Strike, 1909-1910?
— From Women and Social Movements in the United States

How Did Florence Kelley’s Campaign against Sweatshops in Chicago in the 1890s Contribute to State Formation? — From Women and Social Movements in the United States

The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living? — From Women and Social Movements in the United States

SAMPLE NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE 1909-10 UPRISING

Additional Instructional Resources

Methods of Reform: The Lowell Mill Girls. From the UMBC Center for History Education, Teaching American History Lesson Plans.

Fire at the Triangle Factory

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Fire in the Sky: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Causes and Consequences

Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan: Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor

Secondary Resources

Moore, Deborah Dash and David Lobenstine. “Beyond place and ethnicity : the uses of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire.” In Remembering the Lower East Side : American Jewish Reflections, eds.  Hasia R. Diner, Jeffrey Shandler, and Beth S. Wenger. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c2000. 

Stein, Leon, The Triangle Fire. Cornell University Press, 2001.

Von Drehle, David. Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Baltimore Museum of Industry
1415 Key Highway
Baltimore, MD 21230
Phone: (410) 727-4808

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

Baltimore and the 19th of April 1861

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

STANDARD 2: The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people.

Standard 2B: The student understands the social experience of the war on the battlefield and homefront.

7-12: Compare the motives for fighting and the daily life experiences of Confederate with those of white and African American Union soldiers. [Evidence historical perspectives]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: View of Baltimore City from Federal Hill
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1859
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  2. DESCRIPTION: Governor Thomas Hicks
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1867
    SOURCE: Maryland Commission on Artistic Property Collection, MSA SC 1545-1-1175
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  3. DESCRIPTION: Mayor George William Brown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: published 1919
    SOURCE: Image taken from Wilbur F. Coyle, The Mayors of Baltimore (Reprinted in the Baltimore Municipal Journal, 1919), 101.
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  4. DESCRIPTION: Letter, Simon Cameron, Secretary of War to Governor Thomas H. Hicks
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 18, 1861
    NOTES: “The President is informed that threats are made and measures taken by unlawful combinations of misguided citizens of Maryland to prevent by force the transit of U.S. troops across Maryland on their way pursuant to orders to the defense of this capital.”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 564.
  5. DESCRIPTION:Attack on the Massachusetts Sixth in Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Wood engraving from Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, April 30, 1861
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  6. DESCRIPTION: The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment Fighting Their Way Through Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Published in Harper’s Weekly, May 4, 1861
    SOURCE: Son of the South
  7. DESCRIPTION: “Massachusetts Militia Passing through Baltimore”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1861
    REPRODUCTIONS: Ordering Information
    REPOSITORY: Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore (Z24.479)
  8. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper account, Battle of Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Published in Harper’s Weekly, May 4, 1861
    SOURCE: Son of the South
  9. DESCRIPTION: Battle in Baltimore April 19th, 1861
    ARTIST: Adalbert John Volck (1828-1912)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1863
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Photographic Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: Civil War Treasures from the New-York Historical Society
    REPOSITORY: New York Historical Society
  10. DESCRIPTION: Captain Hare Demanding of Marshal Kane the Arms Taken from the Massachusetts Soldiers on the 19th of April, 1861.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1861]
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  11. DESCRIPTION: Letter of Mayor George William Brown to President Lincoln
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 19, 1861
    NOTES: “The people are exasperated to the highest degree by the passage of troops and the citizens are universally decided in the opinion that no more should be ordered to come. The authorities of the city did their best to-day to protect both strangers and citizens and to prevent any collision but in vain; and but for their great efforts a fearful slaughter would have occurred. Under these circumstances it is my solemn duty to inform you that it is not possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore unless they fight their way at every step.”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 564.
  12. DESCRIPTION: Letter of Governor Thomas H. Hicks to President Lincoln
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: n. d.; appended to letter of Mayor George William Brown to Lincoln, April 19, 1861
    NOTES: “I have been in Baltimore since Tuesday evening last and co-operated with Mayor G. W. Brown in his untiring efforts to allay and prevent the excitement and suppress the fearful outbreak… and I fully concur in all that is said by him…”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 565.
  13. DESCRIPTION: The Lexington of 1861. The Massachusetts Volunteers Fighting Their Way Through the Streets of Baltimore on Their March To the Defense of the National Capitol, April 19, 1861. Hurrah For the Glorious 6th.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Colored lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1861
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  14. DESCRIPTION: Sixth Regiment Massachusetts Troops
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Wood engraving from Leslie’s illustrated newspaper of April 30, 1861
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  15. DESCRIPTION: Captain Hare Demanding of Marshal Kane the Arms Taken from the Massachusetts Soldiers on the 19th of April, 1861
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: n. d.
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  16. DESCRIPTION: Letter of Governor Thomas H. Hicks to Simon Cameron
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 20, 1861
    NOTES: “…the outbreak came; the turbulent passions of the riotous element prevailed; fear for safety became reality; … the rebellious element had control of things. They took possession of the armories, have the arms and ammunition, and I therefore think it prudent to decline (for the present) responding affirmatively to the requisition made by President Lincoln for four regiments of infantry.”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 565.
  17. DESCRIPTION: Letter of President Lincoln to Governor Hicks
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 20, 1861
    NOTES: “Please come immediately…”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 565.
  18. DESCRIPTION: Letter, Henry Stump to Mary A. Stump
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 20, 1861
    NOTE:
    Eyewitness account of the riot
    SOURCE: Maryland Historical Magazine, 53 (1958): 403
  19. DESCRIPTION: Report of Col. Edward F. Jones, Sixth Massachusetts Militia
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 22, 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 7-9.
  20. DESCRIPTION: Extracts from report of the Baltimore Police Commissioners
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: May 3, 1861.
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 9-11.
  21. TITLE:  Baltimore and the nineteenth of April 1861
    AUTHOR:  George William Brown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 
    1887
    NOTE: 
    Brown was the mayor of Baltimore at the time of the riot.
    SOURCE:
      The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, ca. 1600-1925 
    REPOSITORY:
    Library of Congress, American Memory
  22. DESCRIPTION: Report of Hon. George William Brown, Mayor of Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: May 9 (?), 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 12-15.
  23. DESCRIPTION: Extracts from the message of the Mayor of Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: July 11, 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 15-20.
  24. DESCRIPTION: Statement of George M. Gill
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: July 12, 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 20-21.

Additional Media Resources

Union Policy of Repression in Maryland. Timeline of Events. From United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 563.

Secondary Resources

Chalkley, Tom. “First Blood.” Baltimore City Paper, 23 April 2003.

Harris, James Morrison. A Reminiscence of the Troublous times of April, 1861, Based upon Interviews with the Authorities at Washington, Touching the Movement of Troops through Baltimore; a paper read before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9th, 1891, by J. Morrison HarrisBaltimore [Printed by J. Murphy] 1891.

Sheads, Scott Sumpter and Daniel Carroll Toomey. Baltimore During the Civil War. Linthicum: Toomey Press, 1997.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine
Fort Avenue
Baltimore, MD
Baltimore Civil War Museum — President Street Station
601 President Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
(410) 385-5188

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

The Chinese Exclusion Act

Maryland State Archives
350 Rowe Boulevard
Annapolis, MD 21401

Photograph, "A Corner on the Hillside"

Overview

During the middle of the nineteenth century, two years after the California Gold rush was sparked by James Marshall’s discovery of gold, and in response to oppressive conditions in China stemming from the Opium War (1839-1842), a tiny trickle of Chinese immigrants began to arrive in the port city of San Francisco, California.  From the beginning, even with small numbers of Chinese in California mining camps and cities, institutionalized discrimination was enacted through a series of Foreign Miner’s Tax Laws – the first of which was passed in 1850.  These tax laws extracted the exorbitant fee of twenty dollars per month on any foreigner (read: Chinese) engaging in mining.  These unfair and oppressive conditions only worsened as more Chinese fled the poverty of their native land and bloody events such as the T’aip’ing Rebellion (1851-1864) – many of them hoping to find brighter futures on American soil.

Many white Americans held negative stereotypes of the Chinese people, partly due to deep-set notions of white superiority, but also due to the arrogant and incorrect belief that Chinese immigrants – many of whom would work for much smaller wages than white Americans were used to – were stealing “American” jobs.   This was particularly the case with the railroad, an industry that steadily worked its way from the foundries of the East into the frontier West.  Working conditions laying railroad track were often inhumane, with long, hot hours in the full glare of the sun, and pay was abysmal.  Many Chinese immigrants died working on the railroads, whether from malnutrition, dehydration, or the violent explosions caused by blast equipment.  Despite this harsh environment, the immigrants were able to carve a place for themselves in society, founding a thriving, bustling community in what would become Chinatown, San Francisco, and governing their own affairs through the creation of the Six Chinese Companies – or Tongs (founded in the 1860s).  With their willingness to acquiesce to harder working conditions than white Americans, by 1865 ninety percent of railroad workers were of Chinese descent, and because they formed tight-knit communities, they were even able to win several key victories to earn better wages.

The success of Chinese immigrants in assimilating to an “American” lifestyle infuriated many white Americans.  In large part, this was the case because although the Chinese thrived in the American economy, they largely kept their own social customs, traditions, and behaviors.  For instance, in several of the photographs included in this document packet, one can see the presence of traditional Chinese dress, and open-air style markets.  In fact, Chinatown was a nearly self-sufficient community, with its inhabitants providing their own services and operating independently of (mostly) white San Francisco.  However, many white Americans – whose belief in their own apparent physical and cultural superiority to other ethnic groups is evident in Western imperialism and the treatment of black Americans under Jim Crow law – believed that Chinese were the most “offensive” because, unlike black Americans, the Chinese rejected the Christian religion.  While some Americans such as Otis Gibson took a kinder (but also patronizing and condescending) view towards Chinese immigrants, others, such as Frank M. Pixley believed that the immigrants had no souls, and were damned by their very nature.  Within this framework, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was born.

The Chinese Exclusion Act involved a ten year period of limitation on Chinese immigrants to 105 per year, and was strengthened in 1884 with additional provisions that limited the ability of any person of Chinese descent – regardless of their country of birth – to freely leave and enter the United States.  The law also gave evidence of white Americans’ economic concerns because it specifically targeted Chinese laborers, blocking them from entering American ports.  When the law was due to expire in 1892, it was revived for another ten years under what was known as the Geary Act, which barred Chinese from testifying in court, and also required all Chinese to carry resident passports, with the harsh penalty of deportation enacted if they were found without them – at any time.  The Geary Act was renewed in 1902 with no terminal date attached.

For the next 41 years, Chinese-Americans held status as second-class citizens in the United States, although they served with valor and distinction in the first World War and were almost single-handedly responsible for the development of the railroad in California and the West.  Much like black Americans during this time, Chinese-Americans were seriously limited in terms of the civil rights they possessed, and subject to the violent whims of white supremacists (especially white, working-class Americans).  Nevertheless, Chinese immigrants continued to seek refuge in the port of San Francisco, and Angel Island in San Francisco Bay became “the Ellis Island of the West” in 1906.  Asian immigrants continued to be discriminated against in the Immigration Exclusion Act of 1924, and although in subsequent years some of the regulations would loosen – such as allowing World War servicemen to receive naturalization papers and allowing their wives to become citizens – the Chinese Exclusion Act/Geary Act was not repealed until the passage of the Magnuson Act in 1943.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 6: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900)
Standard 2: Massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity.
Standard 2A: The student understands the sources and experiences of new immigrants.

5-12: Assess the challenges, opportunities, and contributions of different immigrant groups. [Examine historical perspectives]

Standard 2B: The student understands “scientific racism”, race relations, and the struggle for equal rights.
5-12: Explain the rising racial conflict in different regions, including the anti-Chinese movement in the West and the rise of lynching in the South. [Explain historical continuity and change]

9-12: Analyze the role of new laws and the federal judiciary in instituting racial inequality and in disenfranchising various racial groups. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION:  Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  May 6, 1882
    NOTES: The official record of the United States Congress’ 1882 decision to limit Chinese immigration.  The Chinese Exclusion Act expired in 1892, whereupon it was renewed in the Geary Act in the same year.  The Our Documents website offers both original and transcribed versions of the document’s text.
    SOURCE:  Our Documents
    REPOSITORY:  National Archives
  2. DESCRIPTION: Columbia.–“Hands off, gentlemen! America means fair play for all men.”
    ARTIST: Thomas Nast
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: February 18, 1871 in Harper’s Weekly
    SOURCE: HarpWeek
  3. DESCRIPTION: Justice for the Chinese
    ARTIST: Thomas Nast
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: March 27, 1886 in Harper’s Weekly
    SOURCE:
    HarpWeek
  4. DESCRIPTION:  Pamphlet, “Chinaman or white man, which?’ Reply to Father Buchard”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  San Francisco, Published at the request of the “San Francisco Methodist Preachers’ Meeting, c. 1873 (San Francisco : Alta Printing House)
    NOTES: A sermon given by Rev. Otis Gibson, voicing the rare opinion of a white American in favor of Chinese immigration during the nineteenth century.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
  5. DESCRIPTION:  Pamphlet, “An Address from the Workingmen of San Francisco to Their Brothers Throughout the Pacific Coast”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  [ca. 1888]
    NOTES: An anti-Chinese labor publication created by the Workingman’s Party in San Francisco.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  6. DESCRIPTION:  Photo book, “Chinese Photographed by D.D. Beatty at Downieville”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  [ca. 1890s]
    NOTES: A book of notes an photographs of various Chinese immigrants, possibly taken by an immigration officer.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  7. DESCRIPTION:  Play, “The Chinese Must Go.’ A farce in four acts”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  San Francisco, A.L. Bancroft & Co., Printers, c. 1879
    NOTES: An anti-Chinese play produced in nineteenth-century San Francisco.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
  8. DESCRIPTION:  Photograph, “Day of Good Lady Festival”
    PHOTOGRAPHER: Arnold Genthe (1869-1942)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1895-1906
    NOTES: This photograph shows the contrast in western-style and traditional Chinese dress among immigrants in Chinatown, San Francisco.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  9. DESCRIPTION:  Photograph, “A Corner on the Hillside”
    PHOTOGRAPHER: Arnold Genthe (1869-1942)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1895-1906
    NOTES: This photograph portrays an immigrant family on a busy, impoverished street of Chinatown, San Francisco.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  10. DESCRIPTION:  Photograph, “The Grocery Store”
    PHOTOGRAPHER: Arnold Genthe (1869-1942)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1895-1906
    NOTES: The bustle of a busy Chinese market is captured in this photograph.  Like immigrant communities across the nation, the residents of Chinatown provided their own services to circumvent the oppression and discrimination faced in white society.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  11. DESCRIPTION:  Sketchbook, “Lights and shadows in Chinatown”
    ARTIST: William Bode
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  San Francisco, Press of H.S. Crocker Company c. 1896
    NOTES: This sketchbook by artist William Bode captures several Chinese scenes and vignettes – appearing mysterious and exotic to Western preconceptions.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
  12. DESCRIPTION:  Photograph, “North Pacific Coast R.R. at Corte Madera, Cal. 1898”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1898
    NOTES: A photograph of Chinese railroad workers; the Chinese where seen by many white Americans as “stealing” their jobs in railroad work and mining.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  13. DESCRIPTION:  Photograph, “The Heathen Chinee Prospecting”
    PHOTOGRAPHER: Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1852
    NOTES: A photograph of a Chinese miner; the Chinese where seen by many white Americans as “stealing” their jobs in railroad work and mining.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  California Historical Society
  14. DESCRIPTION:  Sheet music, “The heathen chinee: words by Brett Harte; music by F.B.”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  Boston : O.Ditson & Co., c. 1870
    NOTES: Published in Boston, this song and poem represents the degrading racial stereotypes that many white Americans held towards Chinese immigrants.
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE:  The Chinese in California, 1850-1925
    REPOSITORY:  The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley

For additional materials: see American Memory’s The Chinese in California, 1850-1925 Collection

Additional Media Resources

PBS – The West – Documents on Anti-Chinese Immigration Policy

Digital History

Separate Lives, Broken Dreams

Angel Island Poetry

Chinese-American Contribution to Transcontinental Railroad

Additional Instructional Resources

Resources on Incorporating Primary Sources and Historic Sites in Classroom Instruction

The Learning Page: Collections Connections; The Chinese in California, 1850-1925

Secondary Resources

Brienes, Marvin. China Camp and the San Francisco Bay Shrimp Fishery. [Sacramento?]: Interpretive Planning Section, Office of Interpretive Services, California Dept. of Parks and Recreation, [1983].

Carosso, Vincent P. The California Wine Industry, 1830-1895, a Study of the Formative Years. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951.

Chan, Sucheng, ed. Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882-1943. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.

Chen, Yong. Chinese San Francisco, 1850-1943: A Trans-Pacific Community. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, c2000.

Chinn, Thomas W., ed. A History of the Chinese in California. San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of America, 1969.

Chiu, Ping. Chinese Labor in California, 1850-1880, an Economic Study. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Dept. of History, University of Wisconsin, 1963.

Gyory, Andrew. Closing the Gate: Race, Politics, and the Chinese Exclusion. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, c1998.

Hansen, Gladys, and William Heintz. The Chinese in California. San Francisco: Richard Abel & Company, Inc., 1970.

Hsu, Madeline Yuan-yin. Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migration between the United States and South China, 1882-1943. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Ma, L. Eve Armentrout. Hometown Chinatown: The History of Oakland’s Chinese. New York: Garland, 2000.

Nash, Robert A. The Chinese Shrimp Fishery in California. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1973.

Sandmeyer, Elmer Clarence. The Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

See, Lisa. On Gold Mountain: The 100-Year Odyssey of a Chinese-American Family. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Yung, Judy. Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1995.

Yung, Judy. Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1999.

Some journal articles linked to this site require password access due to copyright and other restrictions. Teachers participating in the Teaching American History in Maryland program with a valid University of Maryland (UMBC) Library card can access these materials through ResearchPort.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Angel Island State Park
Angel Island
Tiburon, CA 94920
(415) 435-3522

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Kevin Allor.

Runaway Slave Advertisements During the Revolutionary War Era

Introduction

Runaway advertisements and Notices of Committal are some of the most rewarding sources for ascertaining the movement, motivation, and destination of enslaved persons have have taken flight. Runaway ads were placed by slave owners or their representatives in newspapers. These selection of the press in which to post such ads was aimed at recapture of the fugitive, so often ads were placed in papers outside of the slave’s farm or plantation site. Out-of-State owners, especially Virginians, advertised in Maryland’s press for the state represented the last obstacle to the “free” North. Committal Notices were announcements of capture and detainment of persons suspected of being fugitives from slavery. Not being able to prove their free status, persons so detained faced return to their masters (if they were fugitives), or sale into slavery at the benefit of the county (if no owner claimed the detainee). Only those able to prove their free status, by document or corroboration of status from white persons, were released. Owners seeking fugitives knew that is was to their advantage to give as complete a description of the person being sought as possible. Names and aliases, gender, age, physical features, and distinguishing marks, clothing and apparel are the most basic components. Often a biographical sketch was included. This gave highlights about the fugitive’s friends and familial connections in other parts of the state or region. The picture that emerges is one of a slave community that was not necessarily bounded by the farm or plantation property lines. Many times, advertisers would give hints as to why the enslaved person may have taken flight. While such insights reflected masters’ perceptions of the enslaved’s world, and are frequently biased, the descriptive quality nonetheless provides researchers with valuable tools for understanding slave psychology as well as the give-and-take relationship between members of Maryland’s slave society.

From: Beneath the Underground: The Flight to Freedom and Communities in Antebellum Maryland

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades K-4:

Topic 1: Living and Working Together in Families and Communities, Now and Long Ago 

STANDARD 1: Family life now and in the recent past; family life in various places long ago. 

Standard 1A: The student understands family life now and in the recent past; family life in various places long ago. 

K-4: For various cultures represented in the classroom, compare and contrast family life now with family life over time and between various cultures and consider such things as communication, technology, homes, transportation, recreation, school and cultural traditions. [Distinguish between past and present]

Standard 1B: The student understands the different ways people of diverse racial, religious, and ethnic groups, and of various national origins have transmitted their beliefs and values.

K-4: Explain the ways that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through oral traditions, literature, songs, art, religion, community celebrations, mementos, food, and language. [Obtain historical data]
3-4: Compare the dreams and ideals that people from various groups have sought, some of the problems they encountered in realizing their dreams, and the sources of strength and determination that families drew upon and shared. [Compare and contrast]

STANDARD 2: The history of students’ own local community and how communities in North America varied long ago.

Standard 2A: The student understands the history of his or her local community.

3-4: Identify a problem in the community’s past, analyzing the different perspectives of those involved, and evaluate choices people had and the solution they chose. [Identify issues and problems in the past]

Standard 2B The student understands how communities in North America varied long ago.

K-4: Draw upon written and visual sources and describe the historical development and daily life of a colonial community such as Plymouth, Williamsburg, St. Augustine, San Antonio, and Fort Vincennes, in order to create a historical narrative, mural, or dramatization of daily life in that place long ago. [Construct a historical narrative]
3-4: Describe and compare daily life in ethnically diverse urban communities long ago, such as a free African American community in Philadelphia, an Italian community in New York, or a Chinese community in San Francisco. [Draw upon visual data and read historical narratives imaginatively]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: Fugitive slave advertisement for LESTER, CAESAR, ISAAC, and MINGO placed by William Bull, New York
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: October 27, 1763
    NOTES: See Conditions of Use
    SOURCE: New-York Gazette; or, the Weekly Post-Boy, October 27, 1763; published in Graham R. Hodges and Alan E. Brown, eds., Pretends to Be Free: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey (New York, 1994). See The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record

RUN AWAY

THE 18th Instant at Night from the Subscriber, in the City of Ney-York, four Negro Men, Viz. LESTER, about 40 Years of Age, had on a white Flannel Jacket and Drawers, Duck Trowsers and Home-spun Shirt. CAESAR, about 18 Years of Age, clothed in the same Manner. ISAAC, aged 17 Years cloathed in the same Manner, except that his Breeches were Leather; and MINGO, 15 Years of Age, with the same Clothing as the 2 first, all of them of a middling Size, Whoever delivers either of the said Negroes to the Subscribe, shall receive TWENTY SHILLINGS Reward for each beside all reasonable Charges. If any person can give Intelligences of their being harbour’d, a reward of TEN POUNDS will be paid upon conviction of the Offender. All Masters of Vessels and others are forwarn’d not to Transport them from the City, as I am resolved to prosecute as far as the Law will allow.

WILLIAM BULL.

N.B. If the Negroes return, they shall be pardon’d.

2. DESCRIPTION: Fugitive slave advertisement for BOOD placed by Wilson Hunt, New York
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: October 27, 1763
NOTES: See Conditions of Use
SOURCE: New-York Gazette; or, the Weekly Post-Boy, October 27, 1763; published in Graham R. Hodges and Alan E. Brown, eds., Pretends to Be Free: Runaway Slave Advertisements from Colonial and Revolutionary New York and New Jersey (New York, 1994). See The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record

HIRTY DOLLARS REWARD

RUN-AWAY from the Subscriber, the 16th of September last, a Negro Man named BOOD, about 38 Years old, 5 Feet 10 Inches high, yellow Complexion, thin Visage, has had the Small Pox; his great Toes have been froze, and have only little Pieces of Nails on them: He is much addicted to strong Liquor, and when drunk very noisy and troublesome. Whoever takes up said Slave, and bring him home, or secures him in Gaol, so that his Master may get him again, shall be intitled to the above Reward of THIRTY DOLLARS, paid by

WILSON HUNT.

Any Person who takes up said Negro, is cautioned to be particularly careful that he does not make his Escape, as he is a remarkable stout, cunning, artful Fellow.

Hunterdon-County,
Maidenhead, December 20, 1766.

DESCRIPTION: Fugitive slave advertisement for SANDY placed by Thomas Jefferson, Virginia
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Sept. 14, 1769
NOTES: See Conditions of Use
SOURCE: Virginia Gazette, Sept. 14, 1769. See The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record

RUN away from the subscriber in Albemarle, a Mulatto slave called Sandy, about 35 years of age, his stature is rather low, inclining to corpulence, and his complexion light; he is a shoemaker by trade, in which he uses his left hand principally, can do coarse carpenters work, and is something of a horse jockey; he is greatly addicted to drink, and when drunk is insolent and disorderly, in his conversation he swears much, and in his behaviour is artful and knavish. He took with him a white horse, much scarred with traces, of which it is expected he will endeavour to dispose; he also carried his shoemakers tools, and will probably endeavour to get employment that way. Whoever conveys the said slave to me, in Albemarle, shall have 40 s. reward, if taken up within the county, 4 l. if elsewhere within the colony, and 10 l. if in any other colony, from

THOMAS JEFFERSON.

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for TOM placed by James Jordan, Maryland
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  January 16, 1775
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

RAN away from the subscriber, living in St. Mary’s county, Maryland, on the 4th of November last, a mulatto man slave, named Tom, about fifty years of age, five feet nine or ten inches high, by trade a carpenter and cooper; he formerly did belong to Philip Key, Esq; at which time he resided chiefly at Beed’s creek, and it is supposed that he is now harboured somewhere in that neighborhood; one of his knees is swelled, which causes him to limp. He has lost the fore finger of his left hand, it was cut off some years ago: had with him many good cloaths of different sorts, and a set of carpenter’s tools; he is an artful deceitful villain, and may endeavour to pass for a free man. Whoever secures him in such a manner that I may have him again, shall receive six dollars reward, and if brought home, reasonable charges paid, by

JAMES JORDAN

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for JAMES MASON placed by Walter Beall, Maryland
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  April 6, 1775
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

FIVE POUNDS REWARD,

RAN away from the subscriber, living in Frederick county, near Bladensburgh, a likely mulatto fellow named James Mason. He is about 5 feet nine or 10 inches high, has short black hair curled behind, and is a straight well made active fellow, of about twenty-seven years of age. He understands a little of the blacksmith’s business, and is a tolerable good waggoner: he had on, when he went away, a brown cloth coat, an old double breasted jacket, a pair of white [ ] or fustian breeches, a white shirt, a new hat with a white band and loop, and a pair of [] buckles in his shoes. As he is a sensible, artful fellow, it is probable he may have a forged pass, or a discharged indenture from some of his acquaintances, and may endeavour to pass as a freeman. Whoever takes up the said slave, and secures him in any jail so as I may get him again, shall have the above reward, and if brought home, their travelling expenses, paid by

WALTER BEALL

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for SAM LOCKER placed by Benjamin Brookes, Maryland
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  May 25, 1775
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

SIX DOLLARS REWARD

RAN away from the subscriber, living in Prince George’s county, near Upper-Marlborough, on Sunday the 26th of March, a negro man, named Sam, but generally called and known by the name of Sam Locker; he is a thin clean made fellow, between thirty and forty years of age, has rather long hair, being of the East-India breed; he formerly belonged to Mr. Isaac Simmons near Pig-Point, in Anne-Arundel county, the said Simmons now lives near Calvert county court-house, and I suppose the fellow may endeavor to get down to his old master’s; as he took with him sundry cloaths, it is impossible to describe his dress with certainty; he had on when he went away, a new searnought coat, lightish colour, blue cloth breeches, osnabrig shirt, felt hat almost new, white yarn stockings, and good shoes, (the soles nailed) has a wife at Mr. Walter Bowie’s, near the Forest chapel, is a talkative artful fellow, and will endeavour to impose himself as a free man. Whoever takes up and secures said runaway, so as his master gets him again shall receive the above reward, from

BENAJMIN BROOKES

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for PEIRCE BURN (Irish servant) and NANCY BANNAKER  (slave) placed by Abidnigo Hyatt, Maryland
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  June 15, 1775
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

RAN away from the subscriber, living in Frederick county, on the 15th of April last, an Irish servant named Peter Kelly, but has changed his name to Peirce Burn, and has a pass for that purpose; he is about 5 feet 8 inches high, has dark brown hair, and of a dark complexion, and down look, this apparel is a light coloured country cloth coat, 1 Holland shirt, 2 osnabrigs ditto, blue yarn stockings with shoes and buckles, a felt hat bound with black worsted binding, striped linen trousers; also went with him a lusty negro woman named Rhoad, now goes by the name of Nancy Bannaker, her apparel a white humhums gown, her other clothing such as is common for slaves. Whoever takes up said servant and slave, and secures them, so that their master gets them again, shall if taken in this province, be intitled to 20 dollars reward, and if out, the sum of ten pounds, including what the law allows, paid by

ABIDNIGO HYATT

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for TOM placed by John Ashton, Maryland
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  June 15, 1775
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

SIX POUNDS REWARD

RAN away from the subscriber, living near Bellair, on Patuxent, in Prince George’s county, Maryland, a mulatto fellow called Tom, a shoemaker by trade: he is about one and twenty years old, 5 feet 9 or 10 inches high, stoops naturally, he is fair, but has a remarkable beard when he lets it grow; he has the look of a rogue when sharply spoken to, and discovers a great deal of assurances and impudence in his conversation. As he has always lived in the neighbourhood of Queen Anne’s, the Governor’s Bridge, and Bellair, and has been acquainted with the priests of this province, his conversation may easily discover him: It is likely he may call himself free, and have a forged pass under another name, or he may probably be concealed and kept at his trade in Annapolis, or in the neighbourhood of Bellair, on Patuxent, where he lived, by some white people, who make to familiar with my slaves to my great prejudice, and whom I hereby forewarn from having any dealings with them, either in the shoemaking business, or in any other way, without my express consent. Whoever secures the above fellow in jail, or brings him home to me, will be entitled to the above reward, from

JOHN ASHTON

DESCRIPTION: Fugitive slave advertisement for TOM and MILBEY placed by Roger Johnson
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  June 19, 1776
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

FIVE POUNDS REWARD

RAN Away last Monday morning, from Bush Creek Forge, near Frederick-Town, two NEGRO men, viz.

TOM, a country born fellow, about 33 or 34 years of age, 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high; thin faced, he formerly belonged to Mr. Thomas Johnson, late of Leonard’s-Creek, in Calvert county; had on and with him two felt hats, country linen shirt and trousers, a blue jacket without sleeves, figured with white.

MILBEY, about 23 years of age, 2 feet 9 or 10 inches high, not very black, was lately purchased on Mr. Samuel Wilkins, of Princess-Anne, in Somerset county; had on a country linen shirt, old country cloth breeches, shoes lately soaled;

There were both seen at Mansfield’s, on their way, as supposed, to Annapolis or Calvert county, though they may probably separate, and each make for the place he came from.

Five pounds for taking up and securing them, or fifty shillings for either.

ROGER JOHNSON

DESCRIPTION: Fugitive slave advertisement for SARAH placed by George Somerville
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: January 27, 1778
SOURCE: Maryland Journal & Baltimore Advertiser
REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

TEN POUNDS REWARD

January 24. 1778

RAN away, on the evening of the 14th instant, from George Fox’s plantation, near Dr. Stevenson’s copper mine, in Frederick county, a likely molatto wench, named SARAH; she took with her a molatto boy, about 6 or 7 years old; she also stole and carried off a man’s surtout coat, and a straight bodied ditto, both light colour’d, three mens white shirts, a sum of money, a bed and beding, and many other articles — She went off in the company of Valentine Lind, by trade a taylor, who had been employed in that neighbourhood; ’tis supposed they have one or more horses with them, and may possibly attempt to pass for man and wife.– She is a lusty wench, speaks good English and Dutch, has plenty of good clothes with her, and a large sum of money.—-Whoever apprehends said woman and boy, and brings them to the copper mine, or to the subscriber in Baltimore, shall have the above reward, and all reasonable charges, paid by

GEORGE SOMERVILLE

DESCRIPTION: Fugitive slave advertisement for DAVID placed by Basil Roberts
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: March 17, 1778
SOURCE: Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser Collection
REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

TEN DOLLARS REWARD

March 16, 1778.

RAN away, on Sunday morning the 1st of February last, from the subscriber, living in Montgomery County, at Mr. Dawden’s tavern, on the main road that leads from Frederick Town to George-Town, a likely Negro man, named DAVID, about 30 years of age, 6 feet high, is country born, speaks very slow, and seems by his discourse as if he would not tell a lye, and will be apt to say he is free, as he has often before told strangers; he has a large scar on his throat, and another on the side of his mouth; he has one or two teeth out before. It is needless mentioning his clothes, because, if he is at camp, I expect he has changed them ere this, tho’ had on when he went away, a soldier’s old blue coat, with linsey sleeves, old leather breeches, grey yarn stockings, old shoes, country linen shirt, and a new felt hat, with a yellow button.–
About the time he went away, there was six baggage waggons passed by, going to Little York, to stay all winter, and I expect, if he is gone to camp, he kept with them until they stopt and then went forward, and perhaps will endeavour to get to the English. — Whoever will apprehend the above Negro, and secure him, so that the owner may get him again, shall receive the above reward, and if brought home, reasonable charges, paid by

BASIL ROBERTS.

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for SAMUEL JOHNSON placed by Peregrine Thorn
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  July 28, 1785
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

TWENTY POUNDS REWARD.

Charles county, near Newport, July 18, 1785.

RAN away from the subscriber, the 14th instant, a likely negro named SAM, alias SAMUEL JOHNSON, and has frequently passed under the  names of James Willis and Samuel Perkins, by the latter he had a pass by a person in Baltimore, under the appeliation of a magistrate. Sam is about 23 years old, near 6 feet high, of a yellowish complexion, has a down impudent look, is pitted with the small-pox, and has a remarkable cut with an ax on one of his legs, which may not yet be well; had on when he went off, an old pair of trousers, asnabrig shirt worn through at the elbows, and old short blue jacket without sleeves, and an old hat; he is an artful rogue, born on the eastern shore, and is well known there and in Baltimore, where he ran away from his master in time of the war, was taken up in Philadelphia, after making several voyages to the West-Indies, has been latterly sent to Baltimore for sale, he then made his escape for several days, but was luckily apprehended, and is now, I understand, making for that place, and it is more probable will pass by many other names, as he has informed sever, since gone, that he is free, and others that he has a master in Baltimore, and is going to inform him of his being wrecked down the bay, carrying him a parcel of goods. Whoever takes up the said negro, and brings him to me, shall receive the above reward, by

PEREGRINE THORN

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for MATTHEW BUTLER placed by Basil Edelin
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  February 23, 1786
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

SIXTEEN DOLLARS REWARD
Piscataway, Prince-George’s county, February 8, 1786.

WENT away last October, from Mr. Queens, Eastern Branch a yellow negro fellow, of the Butler breed, named MATTHEW, about nineteen or twenty years of age, five feet 7 or 8 inches hight; when examined speaks soft, and has a down look. He formerly belonged to Edward Newport, of Charles county; he was seen at Annapolis about three or four weeks before Christmas, and it is supposed he went from there to Baltimore about that time. His father and mother belong to one Mrs. Bradford, near Bladensburg, and he may perhaps be lurking about there. Whoever will secure the said fellow, so that I get him again, shall receive the above reward, and if brought home all reasonable charges, paid by

BASIL EDELEN.

N. B. I do not recollect his apparel; he probably may change his name, and endeavour to pass for a free man.

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for NACE placed by Samuel Abell
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  May 29, 1788
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

TWENTY DOLLARS Reward.

RAN away from the subscriber, living in Saint Mary’s county, and state of Maryland, a negro man named NACE, about twenty five years of age, of a dark complexion, about 5 feet 9 or 10 inches high; his cloaths uncertain, as he had many, and very likely may shift them. The above negro formerly belonged to my brother Robert Abell, who lately removed to Kentucky, and believe he ran away on account of his unwillingness to go out with him, although I purchased him some time before, he thinking it was a sham sale, in order to keep him until my brother set off, and then that he was to be confined and carried out with him. The above reward will be paid to any one securing the said negro in any gaol so that I may get him again, and if brought home the above reward and all reasonable traveling charges, including what the law allows.

SAMUEL ABELL, Youngest

DESCRIPTION:  Fugitive slave advertisement for BESS and JERE placed by Henry Hill, 3d
DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  August 27, 1789
SOURCE:  Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2313
REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

RAN away from the subscriber, on the 3d inst. a mulatto wench and fellow; the wench named BESS, is about fifty years of age, a bright mulatto colour, and mother to the fellow, who is called JERE, is about sixteen years of age, and lighter than his mother; as to their cloaths it is uncertain; it is supposed that they will make for Annapolis, as they pretend to be descendants of the famous NELL BUTLER. Whoever will take them up and secure them, so that their matter can get them again, shall receive, besides what the law allows, four dollars for each, paid by me

HENRY HILL, 3d

All persons are forewarned hiring the above-mentioned slaves.

First Citizen: Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Introduction

Charles Carroll of CarrolltonBorn in Annapolis on September 19, 1737, Charles Carroll of Carrollton was the wealthiest man in North America when he signed the Declaration of Independence on August 2, 1776, as a member of Maryland’s delegation to the Second Continental Congress. He was also the only Roman Catholic signer of that document, a significant achievement in a time when Catholics were prohibited from politics and barred from practicing law. Thus Carroll, as a leader in America’s bid for Independence, simultaneously had much to lose, in terms of his personal wealth, as well as much to gain, as a disenfranchised Irish, Roman Catholic.

The Carroll saga begins with the arrival of Charles Carroll’s grandfather, known as Charles Carroll the Settler, in Maryland on October 1, 1688. With the downfall of his Catholic patrons, and the Calvert’s loss of proprietary privilege in Maryland, due to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Carroll the Settler lost his commission as attorney general, a political appointment which lasted only weeks. Embittered by this and subsequent disenfranchisement at the hands of the Protestant governing elite, Carroll the Settler amassed a fortune through shrewd business and advantageous marriage arrangements, becoming the richest man in Maryland, in spite of the political power that eluded him. The same sense of bitterness and injustice drove the Settler’s son, Charles Carroll of Annapolis, to further increase the family fortune and to provide an exceptional education for his own son, Charles Carroll of Carrollton.

As the relationship between Great Britain and her North American colonies became more and more strained in the early 1770’s, events in Maryland would provide an opportunity for the Carroll’s to re-enter the political stage. The lower house of the Maryland legislature began an investigation of the amount of revenue earned by proprietary officials by virtue of the office held. The high earnings revealed by this probe led the lower house to propose a reduction in fees, which, of course was rejected by the upper house. The ensuing “fee controversy” pitted Daniel Dulany, the deputy secretary of Maryland (and one of the officials found garnering huge annual sums) against Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who took up the pen and the persona of “First Citizen” to publish a series of essays in the Maryland Gazette. In their debate, “First Citizen” and “Antilon” (Daniel Dulany’s pseudonym) battled over the nature of government, the rights of Man, and the role religious affiliation. In his first letter, which appeared on February 4, 1773, “First Citizen” wrote:

Government was instituted for the general good, but Officers intrusted with its powers, have most commonly perverted them to the selfish views of avarice an ambition; hence the Country and court interests, which ought to be the same have been too often opposite, as must be acknowledged and lamented by every true friend of Liberty….

Carroll of Carrollton would demonstrate himself to be a “true friend of Liberty” for nearly three decades. He served on the first Committee of Safety in Annapolis, and while Marylandwavered on the subject of pursuing independence, Carroll joined Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase in the effort to recruit Canada as a “fourteenth colony” in rebellion against England. As a Maryland delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Carroll served on the Board of War. He also helped to frame the Maryland constitution and would serve in the new state government as well as the Federal Congress as a U.S. Senator for Maryland. Charles Carroll of Carrollton would retire from office in 1800 after serving ten years as a Maryland State Senator. One of his last public acts would be the laying of the cornerstone to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on July 4 1828, where, at the age of 91, he was the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Charles Carroll would die four years later.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades K-4:

Topic 2: The History of Students’ Own State or Region
STANDARD 3: The people, events, problems and ideas that created the history of their state.

Standard 3E: The student understands the ideas that were significant in the development of the state and that helped to forge its unique identity.

3-4: Analyze how the ideas of significant people affected the history of their state.

Topic 3: The History of the United States: Democratic Principles and Values and the People from Many Cultures Who Contributed to Its Cultural, Economic, and Political Heritage
STANDARD 4: How democratic values came to be, and how they have been exemplified by people, events, and symbols. 

Standard 4A: The student understands how the United States government was formed and the nation’s basic democratic principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. 

K-4: Explain that the U.S. government was formed by English colonists who fought for independence from England. [Explain causes and consequences]
3-4: Identify and explain the basic principles that Americans set forth in the documents that declared the nation’s independence from England (the Declaration of Independence) and that created the new nation’s government (U.S. Constitution). [Demonstrate and explain the influence of ideas]

Standard 4B: The student understands ordinary people who have exemplified values and principles of American democracy. 

K-4: Identify ordinary people who have believed in the fundamental democratic values such as justice, truth, equality, the rights of the individual, and responsibility for the common good, and explain their significance. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]

Primary Resources

  1. TITLE:  Charles Carroll of Carrollton
    ARTIST: Thomas Sully
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1834
    MEDIUM: Oil on canvas
    SOURCE:  Maryland Commission on Artistic Property, MSA SC 1545-1114
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives
  2. TITLE:  Declaration of Independence
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  July 4, 1776 (signed August 2, 1776)
    SOURCE: U.S. History.org
    REPOSITORY:  National Archives
  3. TITLE:  Letter, Charles Carroll of Annapolis to Charles Carroll of Carrollton
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  June 26, 1774
    NOTE: Charles Carroll of Carrollton and his father, Carroll of Annapolis, discussed the activities of the First Continental Congress. Carroll of Carrollton accompanied the Maryland delegation to Philadelphia, but had not yet been selected as a member, and was thus, to this point, still relegated to the periphery of political action.
    SOURCE:  Charles Carroll of Carrollton Family Papers, MSA M 4193 Item No. 590
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  4. TITLE:  Letter, Charles Carroll of Carrollton to William Graves
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  August 15, 1774
    NOTES: Charles Carroll of Carrollton declares to William Graves that, although disappointed by his exclusion from the official activities of the Continental Congress, he will continue to serve the cause even “in a private capacity.”
    SOURCE:  Charles Carroll of Carrollton Family Papers, MSA M 4193 Item No. 591
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  5. TITLE:  Letter, Charles Carroll of Carrollton to Charles Carroll of Annapolis
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  August 20, 1776
    NOTES: Now an official delegate and recent signer of the Declaration of Independence, Carroll seems to realize the gravity and perilous nature of the task before the patriots in not only rebelling against the mother country, but also in creating a new democracy and avoid a bloody anarchy.
    SOURCE:  Charles Carroll of Carrollton Family Papers, MSA M 4194 Item No. 708
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  6. TITLE:  Letter, John Quincy Adams to Charles Carroll of Carrollton
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  June 24, 1824
    NOTES: Secretary of State John Quincy Adams present Charles Carroll of Carroll two “fac simile copies” of the Declaration of Independence, noting that “…this document, unparalleled in the annals of mankind, the original, deposited in this department, exhibits your name as one of the subscribers.”
    SOURCE:  Charles Carroll of Carrollton Family Papers, MSA M 4203 Item No. 2435
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  7. TITLE:  Signature on the Declaration of Independence
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1776
    SOURCE:  Charles Carroll Exhibit Graphics Collection, MSA SC 2292-1-139
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  8. TITLE:  Suggested Amendments to the Articles of Confederation
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  23 July 1787
    SOURCE: Sioussat Papers Collection, MSA SC 561-1-9
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  9. TITLE:  “First Citizen” by Charles Carroll of Carrollton
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  February 4, 1773 in the Maryland Gazette (Annapolis)
    SOURCE: Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2311-1-17
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  10. TITLE:  “Antilon” by Daniel Dulaney
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  April 8, 1773 in the Maryland Gazette (Annapolis)
    SOURCE: Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2311-1-17
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  11. TITLE:  “First Citizen” by Charles Carroll of Carrollton
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  May 6, 1773 in the Maryland Gazette (Annapolis)
    SOURCE: Maryland Gazette Collection, MSA SC 2311-1-17
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives

Additional Media Resources

CARROLL, Charles (of Carrollton), 1737-1832 (Biographical Directory of the US Congress)

Charles Carroll of Carrollton (ushistory.org: Signers of the Declaration of Independence)

Charles Carroll of Carrollton (Catholic Encyclopedia) Additional Instructional

Charles Carroll of Carrollton (Colonial Hall)

Additional Instructional Resources

The First Citizen: Charles Carroll of Carrollton ~ Social Studies ~ School Improvement in Maryland

Secondary Resources

Crowl, Philip A., ed.  Charles Carroll’s Plan of Government, 1787 (Reprint from The American Historical Review, Vol. 46 No. 3, April 1941) n.pub., n.pl., 1941.

Gurn, Joseph.  Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 1737-1832.  New York, NY:  P.J. Kenedy and Sons, 1932.

Hanley, Thomas O’Brien.  Charles Carroll of Carrollton:  The Making of a Revolutionary Gentleman.  n.pub., n.pl., 1982.

______.  “Charles Carroll as Catalyst.”  The Sun Magazine, 9 September 1973.

Hay, Robert P. “Charles Carroll and the Passing of the Revolutionary Generation” Maryland Historical Magazine 67(1): 54-62.

Hoffman, Ronald. Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: A Carroll Saga, 1500-1782. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Mayer, Brantz, ed.  Journal of Charles Carroll of Carrollton during his Visit to Canada in 1776 as One of the Commissioners from Congress. n.pub., n.pl., 1876.

Papenfuse, Edward C., et al., Charles Carroll of Carrollton,” in A Biographical Dictionary of the Maryland Legislature 1635-1789, Vol. I, A-H (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979):  197-199.

Papenfuse, Edward C.  “Undelivered Defense of a Winning Cause: Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s ‘Remarks on the Proposed Federal Constitution.'” Maryland Historical Magazine, 71, no. 2. (1976).

Rowland, Kate Mason.  The Life of Charles Carroll of Carrollton 1737-1832 with his Correspondence and Public Papers. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1898.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Maryland State Archives
350 Rowe Blvd.
Annapolis, MD 21401
(410) 260-6400Maryland Historical Society
201 West Monument Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
(410) 685-3750

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Derrick Lapp. Updated by Nancy Bramucci Sheads, December 2012.

Desegregation of Maryland’s Restaurants: Robert Mack Bell v. Maryland

Introduction

Judge Robert Mack BellIn 1960, the majority of restaurants in downtown Baltimore were still segregated and blacks were not served at all-white dining establishments. Students from Dunbar High School and Morgan State College were recruited by the Civic Interest Group to enter all-white restaurants and demand service. On June 17, 1960, a group of students entered Hooper’s Restaurant, located at Charles and Fayette Streets, and demanded service. They were asked to leave, but twelve of the students, including sixteen-year-old Robert Mack Bell, refused. They were each charged with trespassing, found guilty, and fined $10. The case was appealed and the students representation included Juanita Jackson Mitchell and Thurgood Marshall. The appellants argued that the use of the state’s trespassing laws to support segregation of public accommodations violated the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1962, the Maryland Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower court and the case was appealed to the U.S Supreme Court. In 1964, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to decide if the state’s trespassing laws could be used to exclude blacks from public accommodations and sent the case back to the state appeals court.  In the meantime, the state passed public accommodation laws and Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. On April 9, 1965, the convictions were reversed and the students were cleared of all charges.

Robert Mack Bell went on to graduate from Harvard Law School and was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1969. He served as a judge for the District Court of Maryland, the Baltimore City Circuit Court, and the Court of Special Appeals. Since 1996, Judge Bell has served as the Chief Judge of Maryland’s Court of Appeals.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 9: Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)

STANDARD 4: The struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties. 

7-12: Explain the origins of the postwar civil rights movement and the role of the NAACP in the legal assault on segregation. [Analyze multiple causation]
5-12: Explain the resistance to civil rights in the South between 1954 and 1965. [Identify issues and problems in the past]
7-12: Assess the role of the legislative and executive branches in advancing the civil rights movement and the effect of shifting the focus from de jure to de facto segregation. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

Primary Resources

  1. Materials from Criminal Court trial, November 10, 1960, from BALTIMORE CITY CIRCUIT COURT (Transcripts), 1913-1986, Transcript of Proceedings, State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA T496, MSA SC 2221-12-24.
  2. Newspaper accounts of the arrests of twelve students at Hooper’s Restaurant, June 17, 1960, MSA SC 2221-12-21.
  3. Materials relating to the appeal of State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA SC 2221-12-25.
  4. Newspaper accounts during the appeal process for State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA SC 2221-12-26.
  5. Supreme Court Reporter, Volume 84A (St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1965) 378 U.S. 226, Robert Mack BELL et al., Petitioners v. STATE OF MARYLAND, pp. 1814-1815, MSA SC 2221-12-4.
  6. Materials from Supreme Court trial, Robert Mack Bell, et.al., Petitioners v. State of Maryland, 378 US 226, from Records and Briefs of the Supreme Court and Transcripts of Oral Arguments, MSA SC 2221-12-23.
  7. Newspaper accounts of Robert Mack Bell, et.al., Petitioners v. State of Maryland, 378 U.S. 226, argued October 14 and 15, 1963, MSA SC 2221-12-27.
  8. GENERAL ASSEMBLY (Laws, Original) Chapter 453, Public Accomodations Law, 1963, MSA S 966, MSA SC 2221-12-5.
  9. Materials relating to Robert Mack Bell, et.al., Petitioners v. State of Maryland, remanded to the Court of Appeals of Maryland, MSA SC 2221-12-28.
  10. Newspaper accounts of the resolution of State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA SC 2221-12-29.
  11. GENERAL ASSEMBLY (Laws, Original) Chapter 453, Public Accomodations Law, 1963, MSA S 966, MSA SC 2221-12-5.
  12. Civil Rights Act of 1964, MSA SC 2221-12-30

Additional Instructional Resources

Thurgood Marshall: Justice for All. From A & E Classrooms.

Secondary Resources

Brown, Flora Bryant. “NAACP Sponsored Sit-ins by Howard University Students in Washington, D.C., 1943-1944” The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 85, No. 4. (Autumn, 2000), pp. 274-286.

Irons, Peter. 16 Americans Who Fought Their Way to the Supreme Court

Irons, Peter. The Courage of Their Convictions. (New York: The Free Press, 1988), pp. 130-152, MSA SC 2221-12-2.

Jones, Beverly W. “Before Montgomery and Greensboro: The Desegregation Movement in the District of Columbia, 1950-1953” Phylon (1960-), Vol. 43, No. 2. (2nd Qtr., 1982), pp. 144-154.

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

The Archives of Maryland Documents for the Classroom series of the Maryland State Archives was designed and developed by Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse and Dr. M. Mercer Neale and was prepared with the assistance of R. J. Rockefeller, Lynne MacAdam and other members of the Archives staff. MSA SC 2221-12. Publication no. 2395.

For further inquiries, please contact Dr. Papenfuse at:
E-mail: edp@mdsa.net
Phone: MD toll free 800-235-4045 or (410) 260-6401

American Colonization Society: Establishment of a Colony in Liberia (1816-1853)

Introduction

Source:CIA - The World Fact Book 2002“The roots of the colonization movement date back to various plans first proposed in the eighteenth century. From the start, colonization of free blacks in Africa was an issue on which both whites and blacks were divided. Some blacks supported emigration because they thought that black Americans would never receive justice in the United States. Others believed that African-Americans should remain in the United States to fight against slavery and full rights as American citizens. Some whites saw colonization as a way of riding the nation of blacks, while others believed black Americans would be happier in Africa, where they could live free of racial discrimination. Still others believed black American colonists could play a central role in Christianizing and civilizing Africa.

The American Colonization Society (ACS) was formed in 1817 to send free African-Americans to Africa as an alternative to emancipation in the United States. In 1822, the society established on the west coast of Africa a colony that in 1847 became the independent nation of Liberia. By 1867, the society had sent more than 13,000 emigrants.

Beginning in the 1830s, the society was harshly attacked by abolitionists, who tried to discredit colonization as a slaveholder’s scheme. And, after the Civil War, when many blacks wanted to go to Liberia, financial support for colonization had waned. During its later years the society focused on educational and missionary efforts in Liberia rather than emigration.”

In 1832, the Maryland Assembly “ chartered the Maryland State Colonization Society, established a state board to averse “the Removal of Coloured People,” and set aside $20,000 for 1832 and up to $200,000 over the next twenty years to repatriate all free Negroes who were willing to return to Africa.”

Sources: Colonization: African American Mosaic Exhibition (Library of Congress); Aaron Stopak, “The Maryland State Colonization Society: Independent State Action in the Colonization Movement,” Maryland Historical Magazine, 63 (1968): 280; Robert J. Brugger. Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press with the Maryland Historical Society, 1988. pgs. 212-213.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Standard 4: The sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period.
Standard 4A: The student understands the abolitionist movement.
7-12: Therefore, the student is able to analyze changing ideas about race and assess the reception of proslavery and antislavery ideologies in the North and South. [Examine the influence of ideas.]
9-12: Therefore, the student is able to compare and contrast the position of African Americans and White abolitionists in the issue of the African American’s place in society. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas.]

Primary Resources

  1. TITLE: Speech of Col. Curtis M. Jacobs on the Free Colored Population of Maryland, Delivered in the House of Delegates on the 17th of February, 1860, Annapolis, Maryland. 
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 17 February 1860
    SOURCE: Teaching and Research in the Age of the Internet
  2. TITLE: Memoir of Captain Paul Cuffee, A Man of Colour: To Which is Subjoined The Society of Sierra Leone in Africa & etc.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:
    1912 [1817] York: W. Alexander
    SOURCE: Colonization: African-American Mosaic Exhibition (Library of Congress)
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress, Rare Books and Special Collections Division.
  3. TITLE: African-American Mosaic: Liberia, Library of Congress
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: January 21, 2003
    SOURCE: Library of Congress: a web source of many primary documents, photographs, papers, and writings on the founding of Liberia by African Americans.
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress
  4. TITLE: Maps of Liberia, American Colonization Society Collection
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1830-1870
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: American Memory Project
    REPOSITORY: Library of Congress

See also:

Additional Media Resources

African-American Mosaic Exhibition (Library of Congress): Liberia and Colonization, has a wealth of information on the subject

CIA – The World Factbook 2002 –Liberia

Secondary Resources

Books

Campbell, Penelope. Maryland in Africa: The Maryland State Colonization Society 1831-1857, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1971). REF A-5-1 1400

Delaney, M.R. and Robert Campbell. Search for a Place: Black Separatism and Africa 1860, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1969. REF A-5-1 1400

Fox, Early Lee. American Colonization Society, 1817-1840, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1919. 12-4-2 1400

Hall, Richard. On Africa’s Shore: A History of Maryland in Liberia, 1834-1857, Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society, 2003.

Lee, John. Maryland in Liberia, Baltimore, MD: The Maryland Historical Society, 1885.

Smith, James Wesley. Sojourners in Search of Freedom: The Settlement of Liberia by Black Americans, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987. 12-4-2 1400

Staudenraus, Philip J. The African Colonization Movement: 1816-1865, New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

Books for Children

Gilfond, Henry. Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, New York: Franklyn Watts, 1981.

Humphrey, Sally. A Family in Liberia, Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company, 1987.

Schloat, G. Warren, Jr. DUEE: A Boy of Liberia, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

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Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Donna R. Omata.