Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

Introduction

Three stories of a ten-floor building at the corner of Greene Street and Washington Place were burned yesterday, and while the fire was going on 141 young men and women at least 125 of them mere girls were burned to death or killed by jumping to the pavement below.

The building was fireproof. It shows now hardly any signs of the disaster that overtook it. The walls are as good as ever so are the floors, nothing is the worse for the fire except the furniture and 141 of the 600 men and girls that were employed in its upper three stories.

Most of the victims were suffocated or burned to death within the building, but some who fought their way to the windows and leaped met death as surely, but perhaps more quickly, on the pavements below.

Nothing like it has been seen in New York since the burning of the General Slocum. The fire was practically all over in half an hour. It was confined to three floors the eighth, ninth, and tenth of the building. But it was the most murderous fire that New York had seen in many years.

The victims who are now lying at the Morgue waiting for some one to identify them by a tooth or the remains of a burned shoe were mostly girls from 16 to 23 years of age. They were employed at making shirtwaist by the Triangle Waist Company, the principal owners of which are Isaac Harris and Max Blanck. Most of them could barely speak English. Many of them came from Brooklyn. Almost all were the main support of their hard-working families.

There is just one fire escape in the building. That one is an interior fire escape. In Greene Street, where the terrified unfortunates crowded before they began to make their mad leaps to death, the whole big front of the building is guiltless of one. Nor is there a fire escape in the back.

The building was fireproof and the owners had put their trust in that. In fact, after the flames had done their worst last night, the building hardly showed a sign. Only the stock within it and the girl employees were burned.

A heap of corpses lay on the sidewalk for more than an hour. The firemen were too busy dealing with the fire to pay any attention to people whom they supposed beyond their aid. When the excitement had subsided to such an extent that some of the firemen and policemen could pay attention to this mass of the supposedly dead they found about half way down in the pack a girl who was still breathing. She died two minutes after she was found.

The Triangle Waist Company was the only sufferer by the disaster. There are other concerns in the building, but it was Saturday and the other companies had let their people go home. Messrs. Harris and Blanck, however, were busy and ?? their girls and some stayed.

Extracted from: The New York Times, March 26, 1911

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930) 

STANDARD 1: How Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption.
Standard 1A: The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels.

9-12: Assess Progressive efforts to regulate big business, curb labor militancy, and protect the rights of workers and consumers. [Evaluate alternative courses of action]
5-12: Evaluate Progressive attempts at social and moral reform. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

STANDARD 3: How the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression.

Standard 3A: The student understands social tensions and their consequences in the postwar era. 

9-12: Analyze how the emergence of the ‘New Woman’ challenged Victorian values. [Examine the influence of ideas]

Standard 3B: The student understands how a modern capitalist economy emerged in the 1920s.

5-12: Explain how principles of scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, continued to transform production, work, and daily life. [Examine the influence of ideas]

Primary Resources

  1. SEE: Photographs from the Triangle Factory fire are available from Cornell University and New Deal Network
  2. SEE: Testimonials, newspaper accounts, letters, and reports relating to the Triangle Factory Fire and aftermath are available from The Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University.
  3. TITLE: Working for the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, Pauline Newman and Joan Morrison.
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — In this oral history interview conducted by historian Joan Morrison, Pauline Newman told of getting a job at the Triangle Company as a child, soon after arriving in the United States from Lithuania in 1901. Newman described her life as an immigrant and factory worker. Like many other young immigrant workers, she chafed at the strict regulations imposed by the garment manufacturers. One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 26, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. Although she was not working in the factory at the time of the fire, many of her friends perished. Newman later became an organizer and leader of the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT, AUDIO.
    SOURCE: History Matters
  4. TITLE: No Way Out: Two New York City Firemen Testify about the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 26, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. In this brief excerpt from their testimony before the Factory Investigation Commission, New York City Fire Chief Edward F. Croker and Fire Marshall William Beers commented on the safety lapses—the locking of an exit door, the inadequate fire escapes, and the overcrowded factory floor—that led to the deaths of the Triangle workers.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  5. TITLE: Lament for Lives Lost: Rose Schneiderman and the Triangle Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 25, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. The victims had been trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. The aftermath of the catastrophe brought grief and recriminations. Protest rallies and memorial meetings were held throughout the city. During one meeting at the Metropolitan Opera House, tension broke out between the working-class Lower East Siders who filled the galleries (and saw class solidarity as the ultimate solution to the problems of industrial safety) and the middle- and upper-class women in the boxes who sought reforms like creation of a bureau of fire prevention. The meeting would have broken up in disorder if not for a stirring speech by Rose Schneiderman, a Polish-born former hat worker who had once led a strike at the Triangle factory. Although she barely spoke above a whisper, Schneiderman held the audience spellbound.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  6. TITLE: The Jewish Daily Forward Reports the Triangle Tragedy
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 25, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. The victims had been trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. One of the worst industrial fires in U.S. history, the Triangle fire became a galvanizing symbol of industrial capitalism’s excesses and the pressing need for reform. In its aftermath, a coalition of middle-class reformers and working people secured passage of landmark occupational health and safety laws. The Triangle fire received sensational coverage in all the New York newspapers. This article from the Jewish Daily Forward, printed the day after the fire, emphasized the tragic loss to the Jewish community.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  7. TITLE: Minute by Minute: The World’s Account of the Triangle Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — On the warm spring afternoon of March 25, 1911, a small fire broke out in a bin of rags at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory on New York City’s Lower East Side. In less than an hour, 146 people—most of them young immigrant women—died, trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. One of the worst industrial fires in U.S. history, the Triangle fire galvanized working people and middle-class reformers alike, ultimately resulting in the passage of several laws designed to insure workplace safety. The fire received sensational and extensive coverage in all the New York City newspapers. William Gunn Shepherd, a young reporter for the New York World, happened to be at the scene of the fire when it began. From a phone across the street, he gave a minute-by-minute account of the unfolding events to his city editor. The World published them the following day.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters

Additional Media Resources

Triangle Factory Fire — online exhibit from Cornell University. Includes documents, photographs, and tips for student projects

The Triangle Fire, March 25, 1911 — From New Deal Network. Includes photographs, taken at the scene of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, from the archives of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire — From The Encyclopedia of New York City

Remembering Rose Freedman, last survivor of the Triangle Factory fire. Broadcast February 25, 2001

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire — From NPR

The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Trial: A Chronology

How Was the Relationship Between Workers and Allies Shaped by the Perceived Threat of Socialism in the
New York City Shirtwaist Strike, 1909-1910?
— From Women and Social Movements in the United States

How Did Florence Kelley’s Campaign against Sweatshops in Chicago in the 1890s Contribute to State Formation? — From Women and Social Movements in the United States

The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living? — From Women and Social Movements in the United States

SAMPLE NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE 1909-10 UPRISING

Additional Instructional Resources

Methods of Reform: The Lowell Mill Girls. From the UMBC Center for History Education, Teaching American History Lesson Plans.

Fire at the Triangle Factory

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Fire in the Sky: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Causes and Consequences

Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan: Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor

Secondary Resources

Moore, Deborah Dash and David Lobenstine. “Beyond place and ethnicity : the uses of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire.” In Remembering the Lower East Side : American Jewish Reflections, eds.  Hasia R. Diner, Jeffrey Shandler, and Beth S. Wenger. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c2000. 

Stein, Leon, The Triangle Fire. Cornell University Press, 2001.

Von Drehle, David. Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Baltimore Museum of Industry
1415 Key Highway
Baltimore, MD 21230
Phone: (410) 727-4808

Copyright and Other Restrictions

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Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

Streets of Fire

Governor Spiro Agnew and the Baltimore City Riots, April 1968

Maryland State ArchivesGovernor Spiro Agnew
350 Rowe Boulevard
Annapolis, MD 21401

 

Introduction

On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was fatally shot by James Earl Ray on his motel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee.  The leader of the Civil Rights Movement had been killed.  Many people in the United States, both black and white, could not believe the tragic news when they heard it.  Soon the disbelief and shock would turn to confusion and chaos in the streets of urban America.

The slaying of King led to turbulent and racial unrest in the United States in the weeks immediately following the assassination. There was rioting in more than 130 cities in the U.S. At least 46 lives were claimed by the riots throughout the United States. Baltimore was one of the cities most affected by the riots. The violent uprisings occurred especially in the larger urban areas that had a high African-American population.  Such chaos erupted on the streets of Baltimore in April 1968.  From Saturday, April 6th to Tuesday, April 9th, there was rampant rioting and looting.  Many buildings and structures were also burned, as the streets of inner city Baltimore became engulfed in flames.

The Governor of Maryland in 1968 was Spiro Agnew (1918-1996), and Agnew’s role in the Baltimore City Riots was by no means inconsequential.   Agnew was a child of Greek immigrant parents in Baltimore City in 1918.  After majoring in chemistry at Johns Hopkins University, Agnew was drafted and won the Bronze Star for his service in the European theater of World War II.  He returned home from the war and attended the University of Baltimore Law School and would pass the Maryland bar in 1949, before serving in the Korean War as well.  Agnew joined the Republican Party in 1947 and became a popular politician due to his support of civil rights and to a progressive record that appealed to moderates in both the Democratic and Republican parties. In 1966, Agnew was nominated for Governor by his party, after a successful term as County Executive from 1962 to 1966.  Agnew won the gubernatorial race decisively.

However, Agnew’s initial appeal to the African-American community would severely change in April 1968. Governor Agnew had already faced his share of racial unrest in the Cambridge, MD riots of 1967 on the Eastern Shore.  Agnew had blamed SNCC chairman H. Rap Brown for inciting the violence with speeches and rhetoric that Agnew equated with as a call to arms. This time though, the riots occurred in Baltimore, the state’s largest city and pivotal economic center.  The city also was home to a large African American population. The death of King elevated racial tensions in a city that was already facing such racial and overall civil tension due to the civil rights movement and Vietnam War protests.  Agnew offered sincere sympathetic words in comments about Dr. King on April 4, 1968. Yet, these words could not stop the raucous that was to begin soon thereafter.

Looting and fires became a major concern as the riots erupted. There was a great need for order and security that the Baltimore City Police, by themselves, could not provide. With riots raging in Baltimore City, Agnew sent out the National Guard on April 6 to help quell the riots and restore peace to the city, particularly in West Baltimore where the rioting was most heavy and damaging.  A curfew was also established for all city residents as well as a restriction on overall travel to and from the city.  By April 10, the riots had seemingly been extinguished,  The clean-up of the city would be great and the overall effects of the riot had an enormous impact on city life and its residents for decades to come, especially in those areas where the rioting was at its zenith.

Agnew invited Black civic and religious leaders to a meeting to discuss the riots and civil rights in general. Yet the meeting failed, as Agnew could not withhold his contempt for militant leaders. Agnew called these leaders “Circuit riding, Hanoi visiting, caterwauling, riot inciting, burn America down type of leaders”. Those leaders in attendance walked out of the meeting before Agnew had finished his talk. Agnew gained  support among people who felt that there were too many concessions and pardons made to looters and arsonists during the riots. Liberal critics felt Agnew had alienated the African-American community that had turned out for him at the voting booths just two years before.

Finally, the career of Spiro Agnew would go on to greater political heights as well as dispiriting lows.  Agnew was elected the Vice-Resident of the United States under Richard Nixon in 1968, and the duo was re-elected to a second term in 1972. However, in 1973-in the midst of the Watergate investigation-Agnew agreed to resign the position instead of facing criminal charges, when it became quite evident that he had taken bribes as Governor of Maryland and had also evaded paying his taxes.

(Parts of this summary were abstracted from Junto Society: Vice Presidents)

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 10: Contemporary United States (1968 to the present)
STANDARD 2: Economic, social, and cultural developments in contemporary United States 

Standard 2D:The student understands contemporary American culture. 

Standard 2E: Evaluate the continuing grievances of racial and ethnic minorities and their
recurrent reference to the nation’s charter documents. [Explain historical continuity and change]

7-12: Evaluate the continuing grievances of racial and ethnic minorities and their recurrent
reference to the nation’s charter documents. [Explain historical continuity and change]

Primary Resources

  1. TITLE:  Riot Control Formation, Anne Arundel County Police
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  26 April, 1968
    NOTES:
    The photograph is a print made from an original negative. The riot control formation shown in this photograph reveals how county police were ready to deal with the heightened racial tensions in Maryland in April of 1968.
    SOURCE:
    Anne Arundel County Police Department Photograph Collection, MSA SC 2169
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  2. TITLE:  Comment on the Killing of Dr. Martin Luther King, April 4, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    AUTHOR: Spiro T. Agnew
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 753
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  3. TITLE:  News Release and Statement State Flag at Half Mast, April 5, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 754
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  4. TITLE:  Address to Citizens of Maryland on Burning and Looting, April 7, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    AUTHOR: Spiro T. Agnew
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 755-756
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  5. TITLE:  Statement on Control of Looting in Baltimore April 8, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    AUTHOR: Spiro T. Agnew
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 757
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  6. TITLE:  Statement at Conference with Civil Rights Leaders and Community Leaders State Office Building, Baltimore April 11, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    AUTHOR: Spiro T. Agnew
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 758-763
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  7. TITLE:  News Release and Statement Complimenting Military and Civilian Units in Handling Baltimore Disorder, April 13, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 763
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969

    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  8. TITLE:  News Conference April 18, 1963
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    AUTHOR: Spiro T. Agnew
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 766-775
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
    NOTES: This news conference contains questions from reporters in attendance (and Agnew’s answers) as well as Governor Agnew’s Statement.
  9. TITLE:  News Release on Action to Meet Critical Problems Associated with Riots, April 21, 1968
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 775-777
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  10. TITLE:  News Release on Emergency Assistance To Victims of Civil Disorders, April 23, 1968
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1975
    MEDIUM: Archives Of Maryland Online, Volume 83, p. 777-778
    SOURCE:  Addresses and State Papers of Spiro T. Agnew Governor of Maryland
    1967-1969
    EDITOR: Franklin L. Burdette
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  11. TITLE:   “Guard Called Out In Baltimore Riot; Three Killed; U.S. Troops Sent To Chicago, bolstered in D.C.”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 7 April,1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. 1
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  12. TITLE:  “City Curfew Imposed; Agnew Sends Troops As Unrest Spreads”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 7 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p.1 & 10
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  13. TITLE:  “In Baltimore”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED:  7 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:   Baltimore Sun, p. 6
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
    NOTES: An editorial about the riots in Baltimore of the previous day and night.
  14. TITLE:  “Agnew Wires Johnson; Insurrection Spills to Slums on Westside”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  8 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. 1 & A7
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  15. TITLE:  “Efficient, Weary Guardsmen unable to Prevent Looting”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  8 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. 1 & A9
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  16. TITLE:  “Federal Force Rises to 4900…”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:   9 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. 1 & A9
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  17. TITLE:  “Strict Curbs Put On Travel in City”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  9 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. B22
    REPOSITORY:   Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  18. TITLE:  “Negro Peace Meeting Dispersed by Troops”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  10 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    AUTHOR: Edward G. Pickett
    SOURCE: Baltimore Sun, p. A9
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
  19. TITLE:  “After the Cleanup”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED: 11 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. A14
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
    NOTES: Editorial
  20. TITLE:  “No, Governor”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  12 April, 1968
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. A10
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
    NOTES: Editorial
  21. TITLE:  “Governor’s Job”
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:   13 April, 1968
    AUTHOR: John Henry Lewis, Jr.
    MEDIUM: Newspaper
    SOURCE:  Baltimore Sun, p. 6
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives, MSA SC 2852
    NOTES: A Letter to the Editor
  22. TITLE: Spiro T. Agnew, b. 1918: Fifty-fifth Governor, 1967-1969 (Republican)
    CREATED/PUBLISHED:  1972.
    MEDIUM: Portrait
    ARTIST: Robert Tollast
    SOURCE:  Exhibit of Governors’ Portraits in the Governor’s Reception Room, Maryland State House, MSA SC 1545-1091
    REPOSITORY:  Maryland State Archives

Additional Media Resources

Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series). Spiro T. Agnew (1918-1996), MSA SC 3520-1486
Governor of Maryland, 1967-1969, Vice President of the U.S., 1969-1973 (Republican).

Additional Instructional Resources

Resources on Incorporating Primary Sources and Historic Sites in Classroom Instruction

Documents for the Classroom: Is Baltimore Burning?

Secondary Resources

Albright, Joseph. What makes Spiro run; the life and times of Spiro Agnew. New York, 1972.

Clayborne, Carson and Tom Hamburger.  “The Cambridge Convergence: How a night in Maryland 30 Years Ago Changed the Nation’s Course of Racial Politics” Minneapolis Star Tribune, 28 July 1997.

Cummings, Elijah.  “Thirty Years After the Riots”, Afro-American 11 April,1998.

Klee,Gerald D.  M.D. “Riots and Mental Illness” Maryland Psychiatrist, Spring/Summer 1998, Vol. 25 No. 1.

Knopf, Terry Ann. “Race, Riots, and Reporting”Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3. (Mar., 1974), pp. 303-327.

O’Reilly,Kenneth. “The FBI and the Politics of the Riots, 1964-1968”. The Journal of American History, Vol. 75, No. 1. (Jun., 1988), pp. 91-114.

“Spiro the Tyro”. Time Magazine. 20 September, 1968, pgs. 21, 24-25.

Password Access to Journal Articles

Some journal articles linked to this site require password access due to copyright and other restrictions. Teachers participating in the Teaching American History in Maryland program with a valid University of Maryland (UMBC) Library card can access these materials through ResearchPort.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Great Blacks in Wax Museum
1601-03 E. North Avenue
Baltimore, Maryland 21213
(410) 563-6416

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Michael T. Walsh.