Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

Introduction

Three stories of a ten-floor building at the corner of Greene Street and Washington Place were burned yesterday, and while the fire was going on 141 young men and women at least 125 of them mere girls were burned to death or killed by jumping to the pavement below.

The building was fireproof. It shows now hardly any signs of the disaster that overtook it. The walls are as good as ever so are the floors, nothing is the worse for the fire except the furniture and 141 of the 600 men and girls that were employed in its upper three stories.

Most of the victims were suffocated or burned to death within the building, but some who fought their way to the windows and leaped met death as surely, but perhaps more quickly, on the pavements below.

Nothing like it has been seen in New York since the burning of the General Slocum. The fire was practically all over in half an hour. It was confined to three floors the eighth, ninth, and tenth of the building. But it was the most murderous fire that New York had seen in many years.

The victims who are now lying at the Morgue waiting for some one to identify them by a tooth or the remains of a burned shoe were mostly girls from 16 to 23 years of age. They were employed at making shirtwaist by the Triangle Waist Company, the principal owners of which are Isaac Harris and Max Blanck. Most of them could barely speak English. Many of them came from Brooklyn. Almost all were the main support of their hard-working families.

There is just one fire escape in the building. That one is an interior fire escape. In Greene Street, where the terrified unfortunates crowded before they began to make their mad leaps to death, the whole big front of the building is guiltless of one. Nor is there a fire escape in the back.

The building was fireproof and the owners had put their trust in that. In fact, after the flames had done their worst last night, the building hardly showed a sign. Only the stock within it and the girl employees were burned.

A heap of corpses lay on the sidewalk for more than an hour. The firemen were too busy dealing with the fire to pay any attention to people whom they supposed beyond their aid. When the excitement had subsided to such an extent that some of the firemen and policemen could pay attention to this mass of the supposedly dead they found about half way down in the pack a girl who was still breathing. She died two minutes after she was found.

The Triangle Waist Company was the only sufferer by the disaster. There are other concerns in the building, but it was Saturday and the other companies had let their people go home. Messrs. Harris and Blanck, however, were busy and ?? their girls and some stayed.

Extracted from: The New York Times, March 26, 1911

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930) 

STANDARD 1: How Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption.
Standard 1A: The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels.

9-12: Assess Progressive efforts to regulate big business, curb labor militancy, and protect the rights of workers and consumers. [Evaluate alternative courses of action]
5-12: Evaluate Progressive attempts at social and moral reform. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

STANDARD 3: How the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression.

Standard 3A: The student understands social tensions and their consequences in the postwar era. 

9-12: Analyze how the emergence of the ‘New Woman’ challenged Victorian values. [Examine the influence of ideas]

Standard 3B: The student understands how a modern capitalist economy emerged in the 1920s.

5-12: Explain how principles of scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, continued to transform production, work, and daily life. [Examine the influence of ideas]

Primary Resources

  1. SEE: Photographs from the Triangle Factory fire are available from Cornell University and New Deal Network
  2. SEE: Testimonials, newspaper accounts, letters, and reports relating to the Triangle Factory Fire and aftermath are available from The Triangle Factory Fire, Cornell University.
  3. TITLE: Working for the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, Pauline Newman and Joan Morrison.
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — In this oral history interview conducted by historian Joan Morrison, Pauline Newman told of getting a job at the Triangle Company as a child, soon after arriving in the United States from Lithuania in 1901. Newman described her life as an immigrant and factory worker. Like many other young immigrant workers, she chafed at the strict regulations imposed by the garment manufacturers. One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 26, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. Although she was not working in the factory at the time of the fire, many of her friends perished. Newman later became an organizer and leader of the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT, AUDIO.
    SOURCE: History Matters
  4. TITLE: No Way Out: Two New York City Firemen Testify about the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 26, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. In this brief excerpt from their testimony before the Factory Investigation Commission, New York City Fire Chief Edward F. Croker and Fire Marshall William Beers commented on the safety lapses—the locking of an exit door, the inadequate fire escapes, and the overcrowded factory floor—that led to the deaths of the Triangle workers.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  5. TITLE: Lament for Lives Lost: Rose Schneiderman and the Triangle Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 25, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. The victims had been trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. The aftermath of the catastrophe brought grief and recriminations. Protest rallies and memorial meetings were held throughout the city. During one meeting at the Metropolitan Opera House, tension broke out between the working-class Lower East Siders who filled the galleries (and saw class solidarity as the ultimate solution to the problems of industrial safety) and the middle- and upper-class women in the boxes who sought reforms like creation of a bureau of fire prevention. The meeting would have broken up in disorder if not for a stirring speech by Rose Schneiderman, a Polish-born former hat worker who had once led a strike at the Triangle factory. Although she barely spoke above a whisper, Schneiderman held the audience spellbound.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  6. TITLE: The Jewish Daily Forward Reports the Triangle Tragedy
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — One of the greatest industrial tragedies in U.S. history occurred on March 25, 1911, when 146 workers, mostly young immigrant women, died in a fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City. The victims had been trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. One of the worst industrial fires in U.S. history, the Triangle fire became a galvanizing symbol of industrial capitalism’s excesses and the pressing need for reform. In its aftermath, a coalition of middle-class reformers and working people secured passage of landmark occupational health and safety laws. The Triangle fire received sensational coverage in all the New York newspapers. This article from the Jewish Daily Forward, printed the day after the fire, emphasized the tragic loss to the Jewish community.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters
  7. TITLE: Minute by Minute: The World’s Account of the Triangle Fire
    DESCRIPTION: From History Matters — On the warm spring afternoon of March 25, 1911, a small fire broke out in a bin of rags at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory on New York City’s Lower East Side. In less than an hour, 146 people—most of them young immigrant women—died, trapped by blocked exit doors and faulty fire escapes. One of the worst industrial fires in U.S. history, the Triangle fire galvanized working people and middle-class reformers alike, ultimately resulting in the passage of several laws designed to insure workplace safety. The fire received sensational and extensive coverage in all the New York City newspapers. William Gunn Shepherd, a young reporter for the New York World, happened to be at the scene of the fire when it began. From a phone across the street, he gave a minute-by-minute account of the unfolding events to his city editor. The World published them the following day.
    RESOURCES AVAILABLE: TEXT
    SOURCE: History Matters

Additional Media Resources

Triangle Factory Fire — online exhibit from Cornell University. Includes documents, photographs, and tips for student projects

The Triangle Fire, March 25, 1911 — From New Deal Network. Includes photographs, taken at the scene of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, from the archives of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire — From The Encyclopedia of New York City

Remembering Rose Freedman, last survivor of the Triangle Factory fire. Broadcast February 25, 2001

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire — From NPR

The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Trial: A Chronology

How Was the Relationship Between Workers and Allies Shaped by the Perceived Threat of Socialism in the
New York City Shirtwaist Strike, 1909-1910?
— From Women and Social Movements in the United States

How Did Florence Kelley’s Campaign against Sweatshops in Chicago in the 1890s Contribute to State Formation? — From Women and Social Movements in the United States

The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living? — From Women and Social Movements in the United States

SAMPLE NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE 1909-10 UPRISING

Additional Instructional Resources

Methods of Reform: The Lowell Mill Girls. From the UMBC Center for History Education, Teaching American History Lesson Plans.

Fire at the Triangle Factory

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Fire in the Sky: The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Causes and Consequences

Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan: Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor

Secondary Resources

Moore, Deborah Dash and David Lobenstine. “Beyond place and ethnicity : the uses of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire.” In Remembering the Lower East Side : American Jewish Reflections, eds.  Hasia R. Diner, Jeffrey Shandler, and Beth S. Wenger. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c2000. 

Stein, Leon, The Triangle Fire. Cornell University Press, 2001.

Von Drehle, David. Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Baltimore Museum of Industry
1415 Key Highway
Baltimore, MD 21230
Phone: (410) 727-4808

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

Baltimore and the 19th of April 1861

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

STANDARD 2: The course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people.

Standard 2B: The student understands the social experience of the war on the battlefield and homefront.

7-12: Compare the motives for fighting and the daily life experiences of Confederate with those of white and African American Union soldiers. [Evidence historical perspectives]

Primary Resources

  1. DESCRIPTION: View of Baltimore City from Federal Hill
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1859
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  2. DESCRIPTION: Governor Thomas Hicks
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1867
    SOURCE: Maryland Commission on Artistic Property Collection, MSA SC 1545-1-1175
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  3. DESCRIPTION: Mayor George William Brown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: published 1919
    SOURCE: Image taken from Wilbur F. Coyle, The Mayors of Baltimore (Reprinted in the Baltimore Municipal Journal, 1919), 101.
    REPOSITORY: Maryland State Archives
  4. DESCRIPTION: Letter, Simon Cameron, Secretary of War to Governor Thomas H. Hicks
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 18, 1861
    NOTES: “The President is informed that threats are made and measures taken by unlawful combinations of misguided citizens of Maryland to prevent by force the transit of U.S. troops across Maryland on their way pursuant to orders to the defense of this capital.”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 564.
  5. DESCRIPTION:Attack on the Massachusetts Sixth in Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Wood engraving from Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, April 30, 1861
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  6. DESCRIPTION: The Sixth Massachusetts Regiment Fighting Their Way Through Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Published in Harper’s Weekly, May 4, 1861
    SOURCE: Son of the South
  7. DESCRIPTION: “Massachusetts Militia Passing through Baltimore”
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1861
    REPRODUCTIONS: Ordering Information
    REPOSITORY: Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore (Z24.479)
  8. DESCRIPTION: Newspaper account, Battle of Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Published in Harper’s Weekly, May 4, 1861
    SOURCE: Son of the South
  9. DESCRIPTION: Battle in Baltimore April 19th, 1861
    ARTIST: Adalbert John Volck (1828-1912)
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1863
    REPRODUCTIONS: How to Order Photographic Reproductions
    COPYRIGHT: Copyright and Other Restrictions
    SOURCE: Civil War Treasures from the New-York Historical Society
    REPOSITORY: New York Historical Society
  10. DESCRIPTION: Captain Hare Demanding of Marshal Kane the Arms Taken from the Massachusetts Soldiers on the 19th of April, 1861.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1861]
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  11. DESCRIPTION: Letter of Mayor George William Brown to President Lincoln
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 19, 1861
    NOTES: “The people are exasperated to the highest degree by the passage of troops and the citizens are universally decided in the opinion that no more should be ordered to come. The authorities of the city did their best to-day to protect both strangers and citizens and to prevent any collision but in vain; and but for their great efforts a fearful slaughter would have occurred. Under these circumstances it is my solemn duty to inform you that it is not possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore unless they fight their way at every step.”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 564.
  12. DESCRIPTION: Letter of Governor Thomas H. Hicks to President Lincoln
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: n. d.; appended to letter of Mayor George William Brown to Lincoln, April 19, 1861
    NOTES: “I have been in Baltimore since Tuesday evening last and co-operated with Mayor G. W. Brown in his untiring efforts to allay and prevent the excitement and suppress the fearful outbreak… and I fully concur in all that is said by him…”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 565.
  13. DESCRIPTION: The Lexington of 1861. The Massachusetts Volunteers Fighting Their Way Through the Streets of Baltimore on Their March To the Defense of the National Capitol, April 19, 1861. Hurrah For the Glorious 6th.
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Colored lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1861
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  14. DESCRIPTION: Sixth Regiment Massachusetts Troops
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: Wood engraving from Leslie’s illustrated newspaper of April 30, 1861
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  15. DESCRIPTION: Captain Hare Demanding of Marshal Kane the Arms Taken from the Massachusetts Soldiers on the 19th of April, 1861
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: n. d.
    SOURCE: Cator Collection
    REPOSITORY: Enoch Pratt Free Library
  16. DESCRIPTION: Letter of Governor Thomas H. Hicks to Simon Cameron
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 20, 1861
    NOTES: “…the outbreak came; the turbulent passions of the riotous element prevailed; fear for safety became reality; … the rebellious element had control of things. They took possession of the armories, have the arms and ammunition, and I therefore think it prudent to decline (for the present) responding affirmatively to the requisition made by President Lincoln for four regiments of infantry.”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 565.
  17. DESCRIPTION: Letter of President Lincoln to Governor Hicks
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 20, 1861
    NOTES: “Please come immediately…”
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 565.
  18. DESCRIPTION: Letter, Henry Stump to Mary A. Stump
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 20, 1861
    NOTE:
    Eyewitness account of the riot
    SOURCE: Maryland Historical Magazine, 53 (1958): 403
  19. DESCRIPTION: Report of Col. Edward F. Jones, Sixth Massachusetts Militia
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: April 22, 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 7-9.
  20. DESCRIPTION: Extracts from report of the Baltimore Police Commissioners
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: May 3, 1861.
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 9-11.
  21. TITLE:  Baltimore and the nineteenth of April 1861
    AUTHOR:  George William Brown
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: 
    1887
    NOTE: 
    Brown was the mayor of Baltimore at the time of the riot.
    SOURCE:
      The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, ca. 1600-1925 
    REPOSITORY:
    Library of Congress, American Memory
  22. DESCRIPTION: Report of Hon. George William Brown, Mayor of Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: May 9 (?), 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 12-15.
  23. DESCRIPTION: Extracts from the message of the Mayor of Baltimore
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: July 11, 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 15-20.
  24. DESCRIPTION: Statement of George M. Gill
    DATE CREATED/PUBLISHED: July 12, 1861
    SOURCE: United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 1 – Volume 2. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 20-21.

Additional Media Resources

Union Policy of Repression in Maryland. Timeline of Events. From United States. War Dept., United States. Record and Pension Office., United States. War Records Office., et al. The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. Series 2 – Volume 1. (Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1894): 563.

Secondary Resources

Chalkley, Tom. “First Blood.” Baltimore City Paper, 23 April 2003.

Harris, James Morrison. A Reminiscence of the Troublous times of April, 1861, Based upon Interviews with the Authorities at Washington, Touching the Movement of Troops through Baltimore; a paper read before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9th, 1891, by J. Morrison HarrisBaltimore [Printed by J. Murphy] 1891.

Sheads, Scott Sumpter and Daniel Carroll Toomey. Baltimore During the Civil War. Linthicum: Toomey Press, 1997.

Associated Heritage and Preservation Organizations

Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine
Fort Avenue
Baltimore, MD
Baltimore Civil War Museum — President Street Station
601 President Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
(410) 385-5188

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

This document packet was researched and developed by Nancy Bramucci.

Desegregation of Maryland’s Restaurants: Robert Mack Bell v. Maryland

Introduction

Judge Robert Mack BellIn 1960, the majority of restaurants in downtown Baltimore were still segregated and blacks were not served at all-white dining establishments. Students from Dunbar High School and Morgan State College were recruited by the Civic Interest Group to enter all-white restaurants and demand service. On June 17, 1960, a group of students entered Hooper’s Restaurant, located at Charles and Fayette Streets, and demanded service. They were asked to leave, but twelve of the students, including sixteen-year-old Robert Mack Bell, refused. They were each charged with trespassing, found guilty, and fined $10. The case was appealed and the students representation included Juanita Jackson Mitchell and Thurgood Marshall. The appellants argued that the use of the state’s trespassing laws to support segregation of public accommodations violated the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1962, the Maryland Court of Appeals upheld the decision of the lower court and the case was appealed to the U.S Supreme Court. In 1964, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to decide if the state’s trespassing laws could be used to exclude blacks from public accommodations and sent the case back to the state appeals court.  In the meantime, the state passed public accommodation laws and Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. On April 9, 1965, the convictions were reversed and the students were cleared of all charges.

Robert Mack Bell went on to graduate from Harvard Law School and was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1969. He served as a judge for the District Court of Maryland, the Baltimore City Circuit Court, and the Court of Special Appeals. Since 1996, Judge Bell has served as the Chief Judge of Maryland’s Court of Appeals.

National History Standards

Materials compiled in this document can be used by educators to fulfill the following National History Standards for Grades 5-12:

Era 9: Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)

STANDARD 4: The struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties. 

7-12: Explain the origins of the postwar civil rights movement and the role of the NAACP in the legal assault on segregation. [Analyze multiple causation]
5-12: Explain the resistance to civil rights in the South between 1954 and 1965. [Identify issues and problems in the past]
7-12: Assess the role of the legislative and executive branches in advancing the civil rights movement and the effect of shifting the focus from de jure to de facto segregation. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

Primary Resources

  1. Materials from Criminal Court trial, November 10, 1960, from BALTIMORE CITY CIRCUIT COURT (Transcripts), 1913-1986, Transcript of Proceedings, State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA T496, MSA SC 2221-12-24.
  2. Newspaper accounts of the arrests of twelve students at Hooper’s Restaurant, June 17, 1960, MSA SC 2221-12-21.
  3. Materials relating to the appeal of State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA SC 2221-12-25.
  4. Newspaper accounts during the appeal process for State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA SC 2221-12-26.
  5. Supreme Court Reporter, Volume 84A (St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1965) 378 U.S. 226, Robert Mack BELL et al., Petitioners v. STATE OF MARYLAND, pp. 1814-1815, MSA SC 2221-12-4.
  6. Materials from Supreme Court trial, Robert Mack Bell, et.al., Petitioners v. State of Maryland, 378 US 226, from Records and Briefs of the Supreme Court and Transcripts of Oral Arguments, MSA SC 2221-12-23.
  7. Newspaper accounts of Robert Mack Bell, et.al., Petitioners v. State of Maryland, 378 U.S. 226, argued October 14 and 15, 1963, MSA SC 2221-12-27.
  8. GENERAL ASSEMBLY (Laws, Original) Chapter 453, Public Accomodations Law, 1963, MSA S 966, MSA SC 2221-12-5.
  9. Materials relating to Robert Mack Bell, et.al., Petitioners v. State of Maryland, remanded to the Court of Appeals of Maryland, MSA SC 2221-12-28.
  10. Newspaper accounts of the resolution of State of Maryland vs. Robert M. Bell, et.al., MSA SC 2221-12-29.
  11. GENERAL ASSEMBLY (Laws, Original) Chapter 453, Public Accomodations Law, 1963, MSA S 966, MSA SC 2221-12-5.
  12. Civil Rights Act of 1964, MSA SC 2221-12-30

Additional Instructional Resources

Thurgood Marshall: Justice for All. From A & E Classrooms.

Secondary Resources

Brown, Flora Bryant. “NAACP Sponsored Sit-ins by Howard University Students in Washington, D.C., 1943-1944” The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 85, No. 4. (Autumn, 2000), pp. 274-286.

Irons, Peter. 16 Americans Who Fought Their Way to the Supreme Court

Irons, Peter. The Courage of Their Convictions. (New York: The Free Press, 1988), pp. 130-152, MSA SC 2221-12-2.

Jones, Beverly W. “Before Montgomery and Greensboro: The Desegregation Movement in the District of Columbia, 1950-1953” Phylon (1960-), Vol. 43, No. 2. (2nd Qtr., 1982), pp. 144-154.

Copyright and Other Restrictions

Access to materials linked within these document packets is intended for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or holders of other rights (such as publicity and privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. The responsibility for making an independent legal assessment and independently securing any necessary rights rests with persons desiring to use particular items in the context of the intended use.

Password Access to Materials

The use of any user name and password to access materials on this web site constitutes an agreement by the user to abide by any and all copyright restrictions and is an acknowledgement that these materials will be used for personal and educational use only. In most instances, the username aaco and password aaco# will work. Contact ref@mdsa.net if you have any questions or have difficulty accessing files.

Credits

Teaching American History in Maryland is a collaborative partnership of the Maryland State Archives and the Center for History Education (CHE), University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), and the following sponsoring school systems: Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Baltimore City Public School System, Baltimore County Public Schools, and Howard County Public Schools.

Other program partners include the Martha Ross Center for Oral History, Maryland Historical Society, State Library Resource Center/Enoch Pratt Free Library, with assistance from the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress. The program is funded through grants from the U.S. Department of Education.

The Archives of Maryland Documents for the Classroom series of the Maryland State Archives was designed and developed by Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse and Dr. M. Mercer Neale and was prepared with the assistance of R. J. Rockefeller, Lynne MacAdam and other members of the Archives staff. MSA SC 2221-12. Publication no. 2395.

For further inquiries, please contact Dr. Papenfuse at:
E-mail: edp@mdsa.net
Phone: MD toll free 800-235-4045 or (410) 260-6401